Atmosphere & Climate Change

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GMS Conservation Landscapes

  • A Region at Risk: The Human Dimensions of Climate Change in Asia and the Pacific

    Recent regional climate change projections have consequences for human systems, particularly for developing countri

    Recent regional climate change projections have consequences for human systems, particularly for developing countries in Asia and the Pacific.

    Asia and the Pacific continues to be exposed to climate change impacts. Home to the majority of the world’s poor, the population of the region is particularly vulnerable to those impacts. Unabated warming could largely diminish previous achievements of economic development and improvements, putting the future of the region at risk.

    The report discusses the most recent projections pertaining to climate change and climate change impacts in Asia and the Pacific, and the consequences of these changes to human systems, particularly for developing countries. It also highlights gaps in the existing knowledge and identifies avenues for continued research.

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    region​-risk​-climate​-change.pdf (4 MB)
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  • Green Technology Choices: The Environmental and Resource Implications of Low-Carbon Technologies

    Big wins for human health, natural resources in switch to energy efficiency

    Big wins for human health, natural resources in switch to energy efficiency

    • Low-carbon technologies aid clean air, save water and cut land use
    • 25 billion tonnes of greenhouse gas emissions and 17 million tonnes of particulates a year could be avoided through low-carbon and energy efficiency technologies
    report​_green​_technology​_choices​-final​-2​_web​_090517.pdf (5 MB)
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  • Banking on the Future of Asia and the Pacific: 50 Years of The Asian Development Bank

    This book is a history of the Asian Development Bank (ADB), a multilateral development bank established 50 years ago to

    This book is a history of the Asian Development Bank (ADB), a multilateral development bank established 50 years ago to serve Asia and the Pacific.

    Focusing on the region’s economic development, the evolution of the international development agenda, and the story of ADB itself, Banking on the Future of Asia and the Pacific raises several key questions: What are the outstanding features of regional development to which ADB had to respond? How has the bank grown and evolved in changing circumstances? How did ADB’s successive leaders promote reforms while preserving continuity with the efforts of their predecessors? ADB has played an important role in the transformation of Asia and the Pacific over the past 50 years. As ADB continues to evolve and adapt to the region’s changing development landscape, the experiences highlighted in this book can provide valuable insight on how best to serve Asia and the Pacific in the future.

    50years​-adb.pdf (5 MB)
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  • Risk Financing for Rural Climate Resilience in the Greater Mekong Subregion

    This report presents the findings of a climate risk financing study conducted by the GMS Core Environment Program in 28

    This report presents the findings of a climate risk financing study conducted by the GMS Core Environment Program in 28 rural communities in Cambodia, the Lao People’s Democratic Republic, and Viet Nam. It provides an overview of the frequency and severity of climate-related disasters for the communities, the impact of these on rural livelihoods, and how local people currently manage climate risks. The report also explores what climate risk financing strategies could be applied in such communities, including the potential costs and benefits.

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    risk​-financing​-rural​-climate​-resilience​-gms.pdf (4 MB)
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  • SEI Annual Report 2016

    SEI Annual Report 2016

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  • Clean Energy Financing Partnership Facility: Annual Report 2016

    ADB's Clean Energy Financing Partnership continues to provide critical financial support to clean energy projects with $

    ADB's Clean Energy Financing Partnership continues to provide critical financial support to clean energy projects with $2.1 billion in clean energy investments in 2016.

    The Clean Energy Financing Partnership Facility (CEFPF) was established by ADB in April 2007, to assist developing member countries improve energy security and transit to low-carbon use through cost-effective investments, particularly in technologies that result in greenhouse gas mitigation. CEFPF is composed of the Clean Energy Fund, the Asian Clean Energy Fund, the Carbon Capture and Storage Fund and the Canadian Climate Fund for the Private Sector in Asia. The Facility contributes to the energy sector in achieving the scaled up ADB’s annual target set in September 2015, ADB pledged to double its annual climate financing to $6 billion by 2020, with $4 billion for climate mitigation and $2 billion for climate adaptation. The energy sector is expected to contribute about $3 billion to climate mitigation.

    This annual report provides CEFPF's operational results and overall implementation progress from 1 January to 31 December 2016.

    cefpf​-annual​-report​-2016.pdf (3 MB)
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  • Earth Observation for a Transforming Asia and Pacific

    Satellite-based environmental information are innovative solutions that can provide new ways for ADB to serve and addres

    Satellite-based environmental information are innovative solutions that can provide new ways for ADB to serve and address development challenges.

    This report summarizes results of the initiative Earth Observation for a Transforming Asia and Pacific (EOTAP), that brought together the European Space Agency (ESA) and ADB to promote and demonstrate satellite Earth Observation in support of ADB’s investments in its developing member countries (DMCs).

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    earth​-observation​-asia​-pacific.pdf (13 MB)
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  • Resource Efficiency: Potential and Economic Implications

    As our population continues to grow, so does the pressure on our finite and fragile resources. Yet that threat can be tu

    As our population continues to grow, so does the pressure on our finite and fragile resources. Yet that threat can be turned into an opportunity to deliver the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development. This report highlights the massive potential of using increased efficiency as a costeffective way to protect resources, tackle climate change and reduce our environmental footprint, while boosting economic growth, employment and development.

    resource​_efficiency​_report​_march​_2017​_web​_res.pdf (22 MB)
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  • Economics of Climate Change Mitigation in Central and West Asia

    This report provides an assessment of the costs, benefits, and investment opportunities for GHG abatement in the energy

    This report provides an assessment of the costs, benefits, and investment opportunities for GHG abatement in the energy and transport sectors of Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, and Uzbekistan.

    The ecological complexity of the Central and West Asian region gives way to diverse ecosystems with rich natural resources and hydrocarbon reserves; countries in this region are not only exposed to climate change risks, but there is growing recognition that their carbon-intensive economies necessitate reduction in greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in line with global efforts to mitigate climate change.

    The Economics of Climate Change in Central and West Asia, a regional technical assistance (TA) project of the Asian Development Bank (ADB) was designed to identify costs and opportunities in investments for low-carbon growth and climate resilience and low-carbon growth, under two components:

    • mitigation of climate change, which assessed the costs and benefits of GHG emission reduction measures and formulated low-carbon growth investment proposals for energy and transport in the most carbon-intensive countries in the region; and
    • adaptation to climate change, which assessed the costs and benefits of implementing adaptation measures to reduce the adverse effects of climate change on energy and water resources in the most vulnerable countries.
    economics​-climatechange​-cwa.pdf (2 MB)
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  • Social forestry and climate change in the ASEAN region

    This report is the third in a series of reports on the status of social forestry and its role in climate change mitigati

    This report is the third in a series of reports on the status of social forestry and its role in climate change mitigation and adaptation in the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) region. An initial baseline report was published in 2011 providing a regional overview for 2010 and the fist situational analysis was published in 2014, presenting the status in 2013. This analysis report, the second status update, presents the most up-to-date government data available on forests, social forestry and climate change at national and regional levels, and identifis key changes and developments during the last three years. The main focus of the report is the eight ASEAN countries with government-supported social forestry programmes, namely Cambodia, Indonesia, Lao People’s Democratic Republic (PDR), Malaysia, Myanmar, the Philippines, Thailand and Viet Nam.

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    social​_forestry​_and​_climate​_change​_in​_the​_asean​_region​_2017​_01​_en.pdf (4 MB)
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  • FAO and the SDGs

    On 25 September 2015, the 193 Member States of the United Nations adopted the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development &n

    On 25 September 2015, the 193 Member States of the United Nations adopted the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development – including 17 Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) and 169 targets – committing the international community to end poverty and hunger and achieve sustainable development between 2016 and 2030. Six months later, a global indicator framework for the SDGs – comprising 230 indicators - was identified to monitor the 169 targets and track progress, becoming the foundation of the SDGs’ accountability structure. The number of indicators - four times greater than for the MDGs - represents an immense challenge for countries. FAO - proposed ‘custodian’ UN agency for 21 SDG indicators and a contributing agency for six more – can assist countries in meeting the new monitoring challenges. This publication presents FAO’s work in developing and strengthening indicators that measure food, agriculture and the sustainable use of natural resources, shining a light on the 21 indicators of FAO custodianship. It describes how the organization can support countries track progress and make the connection between monitoring and policymaking to achieve the SDGs.

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    a​-i6919e.pdf (2 MB)
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  • UNDP's Response to El Nino and La Nina: From recurring crisis to resilience

    The 2015-2016 El Niño phenomenon has been one of the strongest on record, affecting deeply the lives and liveliho

    The 2015-2016 El Niño phenomenon has been one of the strongest on record, affecting deeply the lives and livelihoods of more than 60 million people across 40 countries. It has devastated crops and killed livestock, in some cases dried up water-sources in others caused massive flooding, driven up malnutrition rates, increased disease outbreaks and caused significant migration.

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    El Niño UNDP Response.pdf (4 MB)
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  • Strategic Work of FAO to Increase the Resilience of Livelihoods

    Together with its partners, FAO works to increase the resilience of agricultural livelihoods at risk of disasters and cr

    Together with its partners, FAO works to increase the resilience of agricultural livelihoods at risk of disasters and crises. People with resilient livelihoods are better able to withstand damage, recover and adapt when disasters cannot be avoided. The increasing frequency and intensity of disasters caused by climate change reinforces the urgency to build the resilience of agricultural livelihoods of vulnerable communities.

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    a​-i6463e.pdf (8 MB)
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  • Delivering Sustainable Energy in a Changing Climate: Strategy Note on Sustainable Energy

    UNDP's Energy Strategy, 2017-2021 

    UNDP's Energy Strategy, 2017-2021 

    UNDP’s Sustainable Energy Strategy Note, 2017-2021: Delivering Sustainable Energy in a Changing Climate articulates – for the first time – UNDP’s vision, mission, approach, guiding principles, and focus in the area of sustainable energy. It also highlights the critical role that sustainable energy plays in advancing major outcomes from post-2015 global processes including the SDGs, the Paris Agreement, the Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction, and the New Urban Agenda.

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    UNDP Energy Strategy 2017​-2021.pdf (3 MB)
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  • CIFOR Strategy 2016-2025: Stepping up to the new climate and development agenda

    Since CIFOR last presented a 10-year strategy in 2008, we find ourselves in a world with continually evolving developmen

    Since CIFOR last presented a 10-year strategy in 2008, we find ourselves in a world with continually evolving development and environment challenges. Millions of hectares of tropical forests have been converted to agriculture, degraded landscapes amount to nearly 2 billion hectares, and inequality has grown in countries around the world. Yet, there is reason to be optimistic: forest expansion and restoration are gaining ground, the rate of deforestation is slowing, and awareness of the importance of forests is spreading among governments, corporations and the global public.

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    CIFORStrategy2016.pdf (3 MB)
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  • The State of Food and Agriculture 2016 (SOFA): Climate change, agriculture and food security

    The 2016 SOFA report presents evidence on today and tomorrow’s impact of climate change on agriculture and food sy

    The 2016 SOFA report presents evidence on today and tomorrow’s impact of climate change on agriculture and food systems. The report assesses the options to make agriculture and food systems resilient to climate change impacts, while minimizing environmental impacts. It shows that making agriculture and food systems sustainable is both economically and technically feasible. However barriers to the adoption of appropriate technologies and management practices will have to be lowered, especially for smallholder farmers and women farmers amongst them. Likewise, an overhaul is needed of agricultural and food policies to shift incentives in favour of investments, worldwide, in sustainable technologies and practices.

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    a​-i6030e​_3.pdf (6 MB)
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  • Nature-Based Solutions for Building Resilience in Towns and Cities: Case Studies from the Greater Mekong Subregion

    Green infrastructure can play a significant role in offsetting losses from climate-related disasters and contribute to b

    Green infrastructure can play a significant role in offsetting losses from climate-related disasters and contribute to building resilience through rehabilitation and expansion of natural ecosystems within built areas.

    Urban populations are projected to increase from 54% to 66% of the global population by 2050, with close to 90% of the increase concentrated in Asia and Africa. Cities and towns—a growing source of greenhouse gas emissions—will need to address challenges posed by climate change. A nature-based approach in identifying climate change vulnerabilities and developing relevant adaptation options was conducted in three towns of the Greater Mekong Subregion (GMS).

    Working with local governments, nongovernment organizations, women’s groups, and professional associations, town-wide adaptation measures were defined by overlaying climate change projections on town plans and zoning schemes for strategic infrastructure. This publication captures valuable experience and lessons from the project.

    nature​-based​-solutions.pdf (6 MB)
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  • From MDGs to Sustainable Development For All: Lessons from 15 Years of Practice

    In 2015, world leaders set out to defy the odds, committing themselves to achieve 17 ambitious and far-reaching Sustaina

    In 2015, world leaders set out to defy the odds, committing themselves to achieve 17 ambitious and far-reaching Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) by 2030. This was not the first time the world had attempted to raise the trajectory of human progress by employing Global Goals. In 2000, world leaders blazed a trail by adopting the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). The MDGs were the first attempt to use Global Goals to capture and advance the shared interest we all have, in a more just, peaceful and prosperous world.

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    From the MDGs to SD4All.pdf (3 MB)
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  • Transitioning from the MDGs to the SDGs

    This UNDP-World Bank Report pulls together the main lessons learned from the MDG Reviews for the UN system and for its e

    This UNDP-World Bank Report pulls together the main lessons learned from the MDG Reviews for the UN system and for its engagement at the country level, which took place at the UN System Chief Executives Board for Coordination (CEB). The Reviews, which brought together UN and World Bank Group staff, systematically identified the country situation, the bottlenecks to MDG attainment, and potential solutions to be implemented. Since many MDGs have been absorbed into the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), many of the observations and solutions provided could prove useful to the implementation of the SDGs.

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    Transitioning from the MDGs to the SDGs.pdf (3 MB)
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  • Advancing nationally determined contributions (NDCs) through climate-friendly refrigeration and air-conditioning

     At the 28th Meeting of the Parties to the Montreal Protocol (MP) in October 2016 in Kigali, parties agreed to phas

     At the 28th Meeting of the Parties to the Montreal Protocol (MP) in October 2016 in Kigali, parties agreed to phase down hydrofluorocarbon (HFC) emissions over the next three decades, thereby building a fundamental pillar to achieving the ultimate goal set out in the Paris Agreement about a year earlier. According to an analysis by G. Velders et al (2016), the Kigali Amendment will avoid nearly 90 per cent of the temperature increase that HFCs could have caused.

    The following guidance assists policymakers to design national mitigation strategies for their refrigeration, air conditioning and foam (RAC&F) sector to meet the increasing ambition levels expected in revised NDCs. By aligning efforts taken under the two relevant international regimes, the UNFCCC and the Montreal Protocol, the RAC&F sector can make a significant contribution towards reaching the 2°C target, or even better, the enhanced 1,5°C target.

    giz​_2016​_advancing​_ndcs​_through​_climate​_friendly​_refrigeration.pdf (2 MB)
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  • ADB - Disaster Risk in Asia and the Pacific: Assessment, Management, and Finance

    This report summarizes the proceedings of 3 events: the ADB-OECD Forum on Disaster Risk Financing, and the Global Semina

    This report summarizes the proceedings of 3 events: the ADB-OECD Forum on Disaster Risk Financing, and the Global Seminar on Disaster Risk Financing in September 2015, and the Asian Forum of Insurance Regulators Roundtable in April 2016.

    Click here for detial report.

     

    Source: ADB

    disaster​-risk​-asia​-and​-pacific.pdf (1 MB)
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  • Asian Development Outlook 2016 Update: Meeting the Low-Carbon Growth Challenge

    Growth has held up in developing Asia despite a difficult external environment. The region is expected to grow steadily

    Growth has held up in developing Asia despite a difficult external environment. The region is expected to grow steadily at 5.7% in 2016 and 2017, the forecasts in this Update unchanged from Asian Development Outlook 2016.

    Follow the link for more detial.

    ado2016​-update.pdf (6 MB) ado2016​-update​-highlights.pdf (793 KB)
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  • China Environmental Policies and Legislation

    Environmental laws, environment related laws, environment related regulations and regulation interpretaton of The People

    Environmental laws, environment related laws, environment related regulations and regulation interpretaton of The People's Republic of China are available on Ministry of Environmental Protection website.

    Source: Ministry of Environmental Protection.

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  • Thailand Environmental Policies and Legislation

    Thailand Environmental Policies and Legislation are available to download from:      -Pollutional Control

    Thailand Environmental Policies and Legislation are available to download from:
          -Pollutional Control Department website, MoNRE.

          -Office of the Council of State website

          -Mekong Regional Law Center

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  • Promoting Private Sector Contribution to the Climate Change Response in Cambodia

    The role of the private sector in climate finance will become increasingly important as the country develops. This

    The role of the private sector in climate finance will become increasingly important as the country develops. This report presents results of a study on “Promoting private sector contribution to the climate change response in Cambodia” was conducted at the request of the Department of Climate Change (DCC), General Secretariat of the National Council for Sustainable Development (GSSD) with support from the Cambodia Climate Change Alliance programme (CCCA).

    Promoting Private Sector Contributions to the Climate Change Response in Cambodia.pdf (3 MB)
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  • Understanding Public Perceptions of Climate Change in Cambodia

    This Ministry of Environment report presents results from a study that identified and evaluated changes in knowledge, at

    This Ministry of Environment report presents results from a study that identified and evaluated changes in knowledge, attitudes and practices of the public relating to climate change.

    Understanding Public Perceptions to Climate Change in Cambodia.pdf (9 MB)
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  • The State of Environmental Migration 2015 – A review of 2014

    The State of Environmental Migration series gathers the expertise of researchers, students and professionals to provide

    The State of Environmental Migration series gathers the expertise of researchers, students and professionals to provide an annual assessment of the changing nature and dynamics of environment- and climate-related migration throughout the world.

    state​_environmental​_migration​_2014​_0​_0.pdf (5 MB)
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  • Community forestry-based climate change adaptation: a practitioner’s brief

    In 2014, the USAID Climate Change Adaptation Project Preparation Facility for Asia and the Pacific(USAID Adapt Asia-Paci

    In 2014, the USAID Climate Change Adaptation Project Preparation Facility for Asia and the Pacific(USAID Adapt Asia-Pacific ) teamed up with RECOFTC – The Center for People and Forests to establish ademonstration site in the Bishnupur community of Sarlahi district of Nepal, on planning, financing andimplementing community forestry-based climate change adaptation (CF-CCA)

    community​_forestry​_climate​_change​_adapatation​_brief​_2016​_05​_en.pdf (1 MB)
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  • Forests and climate change after Paris: An Asia-Pacific perspective

    The 21st Conference of Parties (COP 21) of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) was held i

    The 21st Conference of Parties (COP 21) of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) was held in Paris, France, 30 November to 11 December 2015. COP 21 and the resulting Paris Agreement have been seen by many as a turning point in international climate negotiations. 

    forests​_and​_climate​_change​_after​_paris​_2016​_05​_en.pdf (4 MB)
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  • Grid Emission Factors in Cambodia (2010-2012)

    The IGES Capacity Building for the JCM, in cooperation with the National Council for Sustainable Development, decided to

    The IGES Capacity Building for the JCM, in cooperation with the National Council for Sustainable Development, decided to formulate emission factors of electricity systems for baseline in CDM projects as well as support data for the identification of reference scenario in the JCM projects for electricity systems in Cambodia, and to this end the IGES Capacity Building for the JCM held expert consultation meetings with electricity relevant authorities and companies in Cambodia. This report presents a summary of the results of the above activities.

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    GEF​-Cambodia​_2010​-2012.pdf (491 KB)
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  • Natural Capital Assessments at the National and Sub-National level: A Guide for Environmental Practitioners

    Natural capital refers to the stocks of the Earth's natural assets and resources, such as soil,water, air and biodiversi

    Natural capital refers to the stocks of the Earth's natural assets and resources, such as soil,water, air and biodiversity.

    This Guide for Environmental Practitioners from UNEP is a guidance document which's presents eight steps to completing Natural Capital Assessments to inform decision making that supports sustainable economic growth.

    Natural Capital Assessments ​- Guide For Enviro Practictioners ​- UNEP 2016.pdf (3 MB)
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  • Cambodia Ministry of Environment: Climate Change Action Plan 2016 - 2018

    The CCAP 2016 – 2018, developed under the overall coordination of the Ministry of Environment, countedwith the act

    The CCAP 2016 – 2018, developed under the overall coordination of the Ministry of Environment, countedwith the active participation of all its departments and with the invaluable guidance from National Council forSustainable Development. Their participation made the action plan more strategic, coherent and aligned bothwith the MoE’s programs, plans and policies, and with national development goals. The suggestions andcomments received from peer reviews and from numerous stakeholders provided further strategic inputs fordevelopment of the CCAP 2016 – 2018. A wide range of technical support was provided by several national andinternational climate change experts to the development of the CCAP.

    climate change action plan for moe 2016​-2018​-en​-final​-new.pdf (2 MB)
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  • MRC: 20 Years of C20 Yearso of Coooperaption eration

    The year 2015 marks the 20th anniversary of the Mekong Agreement on Cooperation for the Sustainable Development of the M

    The year 2015 marks the 20th anniversary of the Mekong Agreement on Cooperation for the Sustainable Development of the Mekong River Basin. Signed in Chiang Rai on April 5, 1995, the agreement between Cambodia, Lao PDR, Thailand and Viet Nam

    20th​-year​-MRC​-2016.pdf (6 MB)
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  • Southeast Asia and the Economics of Global Climate Stabilization

    This ADB study focuses on five countries of Southeast Asia that collectively account for 90% of regional GHG emissions

    This ADB study focuses on five countries of Southeast Asia that collectively account for 90% of regional GHG emissions inrecent years—Indonesia, Malaysia, the Philippines, Thailand, and Viet Nam. It applies two global dynamiceconomy–energy–environment models under an array of scenarios that reflect potential regimes forregulating global GHG emissions through 2050. The modeling identifies the potential economic costs of climate inaction for the region, how the countries can most e'ciently achieve GHG emission mitigation, and the consequences of mitigation, both in terms of benefits and costs. Drawing on the modeling results, the study analyzes climate-related policies and identifies how further action can be taken to ensure low-carbon growth.

    ADB​-SEA Economics Global Climate Stabilization.pdf (7 MB)
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  • The role of community forestry in climate change adaptation in the ASEAN region

    This paper summarizes key discussions from the 1st ASEAN-Swiss Partnership on Social Forestry and Climate Change (ASFCC)

    This paper summarizes key discussions from the 1st ASEAN-Swiss Partnership on Social Forestry and Climate Change (ASFCC) Learning Group workshop organized by RECOFTC – The Center for People and Forests in August 2015. The discussions highlight a number of ways community forestry (CF) can support local communities in adapting to climate change.

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    the​_role​_of​_cf​_in​_climate​_change​_adaptation​_in​_asean​_2015​_english.pdf (2 MB)
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  • Green Energy Choices: the benefits, risks and trade-offs of low-carbon technologies for electricity production

    Faced with an expected doubling in world demand for energy by 2050, massive investment will be needed to develop and ins

    Faced with an expected doubling in world demand for energy by 2050, massive investment will be needed to develop and install systems that can not only meet the energy needs of nine billion people but at the same time reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, air pollution, toxicity, the impacts on land, water and other eco-systems. This investment need presents the perfect opportunity to select the best electricity generation technologies to meet these aims (Chapter 1). This report consists of this Technical Summary, and ten chapters constituting the full report. It identifies important environmental characteristics of low-carbon electricity generation technologies and provides decision makers with essential information on these characteristics. It assesses the impacts of building, operating and dismantling renewable power generation technologies such as hydropower, wind power, photovoltaics, and concentrated solar power on human health, ecosystems and natural resources. It also assesses the impacts of coal- and gas-fired power with carbon capture and storage (CCS). The impacts of these technologies are compared with those of modern coal and gas-fired power without CCS, but with state-of-the-art pollution control.

    ​-green​_energy​_choices​_full​_report​_english.pdf (41 MB)
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  • The Paris Climate Agreement and Beyond: Linking Short-term Climate Actions to Long-term Goals

    This report discusses possible ways to enhance the Parties’ contributions to climate mitigation and finance, and d

    This report discusses possible ways to enhance the Parties’ contributions to climate mitigation and finance, and draws lessons for the international negotiations leading up to the Paris climate agreement. Particular emphasis is placed on the importance of the dynamic nature of the climate regime, looking not only at the Paris climate agreement but also at the follow-up of the agreement (so-called “beyond”). This is critical to make the "nationally determined contribution" approach sufficiently effective to achieve the 2°C target. The report also covers the issues of market-based mechanisms and loss and damage as important components of a post-2020 climate regime.

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    IGES​_the​-paris​_uni​_web.pdf (3 MB)
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  • Economic Analysis of Climate-Proofing Investment Projects

    This ADB report describes the conduct of the cost-benefit analysis of climate proofing investment projects. An important

    This ADB report describes the conduct of the cost-benefit analysis of climate proofing investment projects. An important message is that the presence of uncertainty about climate change does not invalidate the conduct of the economic analysis of investment projects, nor does it require a new type of economic analysis. However, the presence of uncertainty does require a different type of decision-making process in which technical and economic expertise combine to present decision makers with the best possible information on the economic efficiency of alternative designs of investment projects.

    economic​-analysis​-climate​-proofing​-projects.pdf (3 MB)
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  • Greater Mekong Subregion Urban Development Strategic Framework 2015–2022

    This ADB report features Greater Mekong Subregion (GMS) Urban Development Strategic Framework, 2015–2022. It sets

    This ADB report features Greater Mekong Subregion (GMS) Urban Development Strategic Framework, 2015–2022. It sets out a broad framework to encourage and facilitate a coordinated approach to the development of urban areas throughout the GMS. The framework includes three pillars: (i) planning and development of key urban areas, (ii) planning and development of border areas, and (iii) capacity development in urban planning and management. Underlying these are four crosscutting themes—green development and climate change resilience, disaster risk management, inclusive development, and competitiveness. The GMS Urban Development Strategic Framework also provides the context for ongoing and planned projects in the six GMS member countries.

    gms​-urbandev​-framework​-2015​-2022.pdf (4 MB)
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  • Green Freight in the Greater Mekong Subregion

    This brief summarizes lessons learned from green freight feasibility analyses conducted under the GMS Core Environment P

    This brief summarizes lessons learned from green freight feasibility analyses conducted under the GMS Core Environment Program between 2010 and 2014. It presents five key messages that policymakers and practitioners need to be aware of while developing strategies and projects to improve road freight fuel efficiency in the GMS. It also provides an overview of the GMS Core Environment Program’s Green Freight Initiative.

    Green Freight in the GMS.pdf (1 MB)
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  • Ecosystem-based Approaches to Address Climate Change Challenges in the Greater Mekong Subregion

    The brief summarizes the current state of GMS knowledge and experience on ecosystem-based approaches. It draws upon work

    The brief summarizes the current state of GMS knowledge and experience on ecosystem-based approaches. It draws upon work of the GMS Core Environment Program and partner institutions, including findings from the regional workshop “Mainstreaming an Ecosystem-based Approach to Climate Change into Biodiversity Conservation Planning,” which took place 15–16 October 2013 in Ha Noi, Viet Nam.

    GMS EBA brief.pdf (1 MB)
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  • Promotion of Climate Resilience for Food Security in ASEAN

    Promotion of Climate Resilience for Food Security in ASEAN (Rice, Maize and Cassava)

    Promotion of Climate Resilience for Food Security in ASEAN (Rice, Maize and Cassava)

    The study on Promotion of Climate Resilience for Food Security in ASEAN.pdf (9 MB)
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  • Developing an Environmental Monitoring System to Strengthen Fisheries and Aquaculture Resilience and Improve Early Warning in the Lower Mekong Basin

    These proceedings report the result of a sub-regional consultation on the existence and effectiveness of environmental m

    These proceedings report the result of a sub-regional consultation on the existence and effectiveness of environmental monitoring systems for fisheries and aquaculture in the Lower Mekong basin. The document also includes a baseline assessment of environmental monitoring systems in Cambodia, Thailand and Vietnam, and the report of a regional workshop to discuss the assessments findings and future steps to improve an environmental monitoring and early warning system that will improve climate change adaptation in fisheries and aquaculture in the area.

    FAO​-Developing an Environmental Monitoring System.pdf (2 MB)
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  • Cambodia Climate Change Action Plan for Mines and Energy Sectors 2015 - 2018

    Cambodia Climate Change Action Plan for Mines and Energy Sectors 2015 - 2018

    Cambodia Climate Change Action Plan for Mines and Energy Sectors 2015 - 2018

    13. ccap​-mines and energy​-2015​-2018​-en​-final.pdf (20 MB)
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  • Spatial Planning and Monitoring of Landscape Interventions: Maps to Link People with their Landscapes

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  • Climate Risk Management in ADB Projects

    This ADB report features how ADB applies climate risk management approach to investment projects in Asia and the Pa

    This ADB report features how ADB applies climate risk management approach to investment projects in Asia and the Pacific, which aims to reduce risks resulting from climate change.

    climate​-risk​-management​-adb​-projects.pdf (3 MB)
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  • A Landscape Perspective on Monitoring & Evaluation for Sustainable Land Management

    This manual will aid trainers of sustainable land management (SLM) professionals to organize and conduct effective cours

    This manual will aid trainers of sustainable land management (SLM) professionals to organize and conduct effective courses on monitoring and evaluation (M&E) from an integrated landscape management perspective.

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  • ADB Environmental Issues, Climate Changes, and Energy Security in Developing Asia

    This paper examines four environmental dimensions of energy security—climate change, air pollution, water ava

    This paper examines four environmental dimensions of energy security—climate change, air pollution, water availability and quality, and land-use change—and the environmental impact of various energy systems. Since all energy sources have an environmental impact, policymakers must begin to incorporate the cost of these negative consequences into energy prices.

    Environmental Issues, Climate Changes, and Energy Security in Developing Asia.pdf (208 KB)
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  • Climate Risks, Regional Integration, and Sustainability in the Mekong Region

    The Mekong region is not only rich in natural biodiversity and culturally diverse but also has one of the fastest growin

    The Mekong region is not only rich in natural biodiversity and culturally diverse but also has one of the fastest growing regional economies in the world. Returns from economic growth have raised incomes and improved people’s well-being, but many social and economic challenges remain. It has proven difficult to effectively integrate social, economic, and environmental objectives in pursuing sustainability in the region. Rapid change and the regional interdependence across the Mekong countries and China’s Yunnan province has diverse consequences (SEI 2009). Looking back, there is both credit and blame; looking forward, both opportunities and threats.

    sumernet​_book​_climate​_risks​_regional​_integration​_sustainability​_mekong​_region.pdf (2 MB)
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  • Natural Systems and Climate Change Resilience in the Lower Mekong Basin

    This report draws from the past decade of climate change and natural systems work in the Mekong region to summarise

    This report draws from the past decade of climate change and natural systems work in the Mekong region to summarise findings and lessons for small holder farms and landscape management.

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    LMB Natural Systems Brief JCR final 24 March.pdf (2 MB)
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  • Climate Change and Rural Communities in the Greater Mekong Subregion: A Framework for Assessing Vulnerability and Adaptation Options

    This report presents the methodology and lessons from a climate change adaptation study conducted by the Greater Mekong

    This report presents the methodology and lessons from a climate change adaptation study conducted by the Greater Mekong Subregion (GMS) Core Environment Program. The study yielded a framework and methodology for assessing climate vulnerability and adaptation options for rural communities in the GMS. It was conducted in biodiversity conservation corridors in Lao People's Democratic Republic, Thailand, and Viet Nam during 2011–2012. The report introduces the framework, describes how it was applied, major results, and makes recommendations for future improvement.

    Climate Change and Rural Communities in the GMS ​- A Framework for Assessing Vulnerability & Adaptation Options.pdf (3 MB)
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  • ADB and Climate Investment Funds: Innovation and Action on Climate Change in Asia and the Pacific

    This document presents ADB’s experience in the development of CIF programs and highlights some of the innovative t

    This document presents ADB’s experience in the development of CIF programs and highlights some of the innovative transformations anticipated or already achieved by ADB projects using CIF funding. In particular, this overview of ADB and CIF activities in the region shows that ADB continues to be committed to building the capacity of its DMCs to address climate change issues by delivering not only finance but also critical knowledge and technology, and by leveraging additional finance, particularly from the private sector.

    ADB​-climate​-investment​-funds​-2014.pdf (5 MB)
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  • Cambodia Climate Change Action Plan for Water Resources and Meteorology 2014 - 2018

    Cambodia Climate Change Action Plan for Water Resources and Meteorology 2014 -2018

    Cambodia Climate Change Action Plan for Water Resources and Meteorology 2014 -2018

    ccap​-water resource meteorology​-2014​-2018​-en​-final.pdf (15 MB)
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  • The Environments of the Poor in Southeast Asia, East Asia and the Pacific

    This book is first in a series of a three-volume publication on the environments of the poor, and contains selected pape

    This book is first in a series of a three-volume publication on the environments of the poor, and contains selected papers on Southeast Asia, East Asia, and the Pacific from a conference organized in 2010 by ADB, in cooperation with various development partners and think tank institutes in Asia. The book introduces a spatial approach to poverty, and argues that a triple win -- reducing poverty, protecting the environment, and responding to climate change -- is possible.

    environments​-poor​-southeast​-asia.pdf (3 MB)
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  • Current status of Social Forestry in climate change adaptation and mitigation in ASEAN region

    This report covers eight ASEAN countries (Cambodia, Indonesia, Lao People’s Democratic Republic, Malaysia (particu

    This report covers eight ASEAN countries (Cambodia, Indonesia, Lao People’s Democratic Republic, Malaysia (particularly the state of Sabah), Myanmar, Philippines, Thailand and Viet Nam). The report examines the current status of social forestry in climate mitigation and adaptation in the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN), and aims to update the Initial Baseline Assessment on Social Forestry and Climate Change published in 2010. Additionally, the paper seeks to facilitate information sharing within the region, and the continued development of policies and programmes through providing up-to-date information to all stakeholders. Covering eight countries in the ASEAN region, the research for the report was collected through desk-based research, reviews of national laws and policies, and technical reports.

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    Situational Analysis Final web​_461.pdf (6 MB)
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  • Cambodia Climate Change Action Plan for Disaster Management Sectors 2014 – 2018

    Cambodia Climate Change Action Plan for Disaster Management Sectors 2014 – 2018

    Cambodia Climate Change Action Plan for Disaster Management Sectors 2014 – 2018

    ccap​-disaster management​-2014​-2018​-en.pdf (13 MB)
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  • Mekong ARCC Climate Change Impact and Adaptation Study for the Lower Mekong Basin: Protected Areas Report

    This protected areas report provides an outline of protected areas (PAs) and biodiversity in the Lower Mekong

    This protected areas report provides an outline of protected areas (PAs) and biodiversity in the Lower Mekong Basin (LMB), and an overview of threats to PAs other than climate change, including land concessions, infrastructure development, illegal activities, and agriculture. The threats posed by climate change to PAs are then reviewed, followed by a series of case studies of climate change impacts, vulnerabilities, and adaptation options in four protected areas: 1) Nong Bong Kai Non Hunting Area – Thailand; 2) Nakai Nam Theun – Lao PDR; 3) Phnom Prich Wildlife Sanctuary – Cambodia; and 4) U Minh Thuong National Park – Vietnam.

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    mekong​_arcc​_theme​_report​_protected​-areas.pdf (2 MB)
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  • Building Natural Capital: How REDD+ Can Support A Green Economy

    REDD+ is the approach adopted by the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) to reduce greenhouse

    REDD+ is the approach adopted by the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) to reduce greenhouse gas emissions from forests. REDD+ stands for reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation in developing countries, plus conservation, sustainable management of forests and enhancement of forest carbon stocks (UNFCCC, 2010). If systematically pursued, REDD+ would bring new momentum and new funding to the task of preserving the world’s forests. REDD+ is already delivering important outcomes as it brings further world attention to the conservation of tropical forests, monitoring the state of forests, and the contributions of people living in and around forests.

    building​_natural​_capital​_full​_report​_english.pdf (18 MB)
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  • Cambodia Climate Change Strategic Plan 2014 – 2023

    Cambodia Climate Change Strategic Plan 2014 – 2023

    Cambodia Climate Change Strategic Plan 2014 – 2023

    cccsp​_2014​-2023​-en​-final.pdf (1 MB)
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  • Climate Risks in the Mekong Delta-Ca Mau and Kien Giang Provinces of Viet Nam

    This ADB report provides provincial and district policy makers with an understanding of the key areas of vulnerabil

    This ADB report provides provincial and district policy makers with an understanding of the key areas of vulnerability and hotspots with regard to climate change in Viet Nam in the period up to 2050. The study identifies potential future climate conditions in the Mekong Delta region and assesses the effects of future climate scenarios on natural, social, and economic systems in the region.

    ADB climate​-risks​-mekong​-delta.pdf (6 MB)
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  • Situation Analysis on Climate Change

    Bangladesh and India share three major river systems: the Ganga, the Brahmaputra and the Meghna. Along with their tribut

    Bangladesh and India share three major river systems: the Ganga, the Brahmaputra and the Meghna. Along with their tributaries, these rivers drain about 1.75 million sq km of land, with an average runoff of 1,200 cu km. The GBM system also supports over 620 million people. Thus, the need for cooperation on trans-boundary waters is crucial to the future well-being of these millions.

    Situation Analysis on Climate Change​_2012​_IUCN.pdf (2 MB)
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