Economic Development

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Economic damage from natural disasters

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Foreign Direct Investment

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Foreign Direct Investment, inward

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Gross domestic product (current prices)

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Gross domestic product per capita (current prices)

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Environment Projects in GMS Landscapes

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GMS Rice Production

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GMS Sea Ports

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GMS Special Economic Zones (CEZ)

  • Business for Sustainable Landscapes

    This report draws widely from the diverse experience of landscape partnerships to analyze the challenges and opportuniti

    This report draws widely from the diverse experience of landscape partnerships to analyze the challenges and opportunities for businesses and their partners, and lays out critical actions needed by businesses themselves, and by financial institutions, governments and landscape programs, to improve the effectiveness of landscape partnerships and replicate the approach in many more places.

    Business​-for​-Sustainable​-Landscapes​-An​-Action​-Agenda​-for​-Sustainable​-Development​-May​-2017.pdf (4 MB)
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  • Banking on the Future of Asia and the Pacific: 50 Years of The Asian Development Bank

    This book is a history of the Asian Development Bank (ADB), a multilateral development bank established 50 years ago to

    This book is a history of the Asian Development Bank (ADB), a multilateral development bank established 50 years ago to serve Asia and the Pacific.

    Focusing on the region’s economic development, the evolution of the international development agenda, and the story of ADB itself, Banking on the Future of Asia and the Pacific raises several key questions: What are the outstanding features of regional development to which ADB had to respond? How has the bank grown and evolved in changing circumstances? How did ADB’s successive leaders promote reforms while preserving continuity with the efforts of their predecessors? ADB has played an important role in the transformation of Asia and the Pacific over the past 50 years. As ADB continues to evolve and adapt to the region’s changing development landscape, the experiences highlighted in this book can provide valuable insight on how best to serve Asia and the Pacific in the future.

    50years​-adb.pdf (5 MB)
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  • Asian Development Outlook (ADO) 2017: Transcending the Middle-Income Challenge

    Developing Asia has continued to perform well, even as recovery in the major industrial economies remains weak. The regi

    Developing Asia has continued to perform well, even as recovery in the major industrial economies remains weak. The region is forecast to expand by 5.7% in 2017 and 2018, nearly the 5.8% growth achieved in 2016.

    Decades of rapid growth transformed developing Asia from a low-income region to middle income. Sustaining growth to power the transition to high income will depend on much greater improvement in productivity. Innovation, human capital, and infrastructure are the three pillars of productivity growth. Supportive institutions and policies, underpinned by macroeconomic stability, can strengthen all three pillars. Asia’s dynamic track record suggests that attaining high income status, while challenging, is achievable.

    ado​-2017.pdf (7 MB)
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  • Clean Energy Financing Partnership Facility: Annual Report 2016

    ADB's Clean Energy Financing Partnership continues to provide critical financial support to clean energy projects with $

    ADB's Clean Energy Financing Partnership continues to provide critical financial support to clean energy projects with $2.1 billion in clean energy investments in 2016.

    The Clean Energy Financing Partnership Facility (CEFPF) was established by ADB in April 2007, to assist developing member countries improve energy security and transit to low-carbon use through cost-effective investments, particularly in technologies that result in greenhouse gas mitigation. CEFPF is composed of the Clean Energy Fund, the Asian Clean Energy Fund, the Carbon Capture and Storage Fund and the Canadian Climate Fund for the Private Sector in Asia. The Facility contributes to the energy sector in achieving the scaled up ADB’s annual target set in September 2015, ADB pledged to double its annual climate financing to $6 billion by 2020, with $4 billion for climate mitigation and $2 billion for climate adaptation. The energy sector is expected to contribute about $3 billion to climate mitigation.

    This annual report provides CEFPF's operational results and overall implementation progress from 1 January to 31 December 2016.

    cefpf​-annual​-report​-2016.pdf (3 MB)
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  • Eradicating Poverty and Promoting Prosperity

    In Asia and the Pacific extreme income poverty remains widespread. This analysis of trends and highlighted good practice

    In Asia and the Pacific extreme income poverty remains widespread. This analysis of trends and highlighted good practices provides useful input into regional and global dialogues.

    This report is produced under a renewed partnership between United Nations (ESCAP), ADB, and the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) to support national and regional efforts to implement the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development. It explores five megatrends that will determine whether everyone will be able to thrive and fulfill their expectations for a better life in the future: regional economic cooperation and integration; rural–urban transitions; demographic changes; ICT access and connectivity; and demand for natural resources.

    Click here for more detail.

    eradicating​-poverty​-asia​-pacific.pdf (4 MB)
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  • Resource Efficiency: Potential and Economic Implications

    As our population continues to grow, so does the pressure on our finite and fragile resources. Yet that threat can be tu

    As our population continues to grow, so does the pressure on our finite and fragile resources. Yet that threat can be turned into an opportunity to deliver the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development. This report highlights the massive potential of using increased efficiency as a costeffective way to protect resources, tackle climate change and reduce our environmental footprint, while boosting economic growth, employment and development.

    resource​_efficiency​_report​_march​_2017​_web​_res.pdf (22 MB)
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  • BASELINE SURVEY REPORT: Enhancing Competitiveness of Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises In The Southern Economic Corridor of ASEAN Mekong Sub-Region (AMS)

    This is the baseline survey made for the project “Enhancing Competitiveness of Small and Medium- sized Enterprises

    This is the baseline survey made for the project “Enhancing Competitiveness of Small and Medium- sized Enterprises (SMEs) in the Southern Economic Corridor (SEC) of ASEAN Mekong Sub region (AMS)” for the period 2016 – 2018. The Project is supported by the Government of Japan through Japan-ASEAN Integration Fund (JAIF) and covers a wide geographical area of 19 provinces in the SEC. With capacity development programs provided to local SMEs, CCIs, government officials and stakeholders, the project is about to (i) formulate SME clusters and integrate them into the regional value chains; (ii) to facilitate trade and investment promotions for the SME clusters though a number of trade and investment promotion events as well as SME database developments; and (iii) strengthen the business development services (BDS) providers to improve the coverage and quality of BDS services available to the target SME clusters.

    JAIF​-SEC​_Baseline​_Survey​_Report​_​-​_Final.pdf (2 MB)
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  • Economics of Climate Change Mitigation in Central and West Asia

    This report provides an assessment of the costs, benefits, and investment opportunities for GHG abatement in the energy

    This report provides an assessment of the costs, benefits, and investment opportunities for GHG abatement in the energy and transport sectors of Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, and Uzbekistan.

    The ecological complexity of the Central and West Asian region gives way to diverse ecosystems with rich natural resources and hydrocarbon reserves; countries in this region are not only exposed to climate change risks, but there is growing recognition that their carbon-intensive economies necessitate reduction in greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in line with global efforts to mitigate climate change.

    The Economics of Climate Change in Central and West Asia, a regional technical assistance (TA) project of the Asian Development Bank (ADB) was designed to identify costs and opportunities in investments for low-carbon growth and climate resilience and low-carbon growth, under two components:

    • mitigation of climate change, which assessed the costs and benefits of GHG emission reduction measures and formulated low-carbon growth investment proposals for energy and transport in the most carbon-intensive countries in the region; and
    • adaptation to climate change, which assessed the costs and benefits of implementing adaptation measures to reduce the adverse effects of climate change on energy and water resources in the most vulnerable countries.
    economics​-climatechange​-cwa.pdf (2 MB)
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  • FAO and the SDGs

    On 25 September 2015, the 193 Member States of the United Nations adopted the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development &n

    On 25 September 2015, the 193 Member States of the United Nations adopted the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development – including 17 Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) and 169 targets – committing the international community to end poverty and hunger and achieve sustainable development between 2016 and 2030. Six months later, a global indicator framework for the SDGs – comprising 230 indicators - was identified to monitor the 169 targets and track progress, becoming the foundation of the SDGs’ accountability structure. The number of indicators - four times greater than for the MDGs - represents an immense challenge for countries. FAO - proposed ‘custodian’ UN agency for 21 SDG indicators and a contributing agency for six more – can assist countries in meeting the new monitoring challenges. This publication presents FAO’s work in developing and strengthening indicators that measure food, agriculture and the sustainable use of natural resources, shining a light on the 21 indicators of FAO custodianship. It describes how the organization can support countries track progress and make the connection between monitoring and policymaking to achieve the SDGs.

    Click here for more detail.

    a​-i6919e.pdf (2 MB)
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  • Investing in ASEAN 2017

    Since its formation, ASEAN has seen an underdeveloped region grow into one of the most dynamic drivers of today’s

    Since its formation, ASEAN has seen an underdeveloped region grow into one of the most dynamic drivers of today’s global economy. As it marks its fiftieth anniversary in 2017, the Association’s ten member countries are a significant focus of international investment as Southeast Asia’s success story continues, following the formation of the ASEAN Economic Community (AEC).

    Investing​-in​-ASEAN​-2017​-.pdf (5 MB)
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  • Asian Economic Integration Report 2016

    With the continued anemic global economic recovery, trade growth in Asia and the Pacific decelerated in 2015, falling fu

    With the continued anemic global economic recovery, trade growth in Asia and the Pacific decelerated in 2015, falling further behind growth in gross domestic product.

    Click here for detial report.

    AsianEconomicIntegrationReport​-2016​-mainreport.pdf (4 MB) AsianEconomicIntegrationReport​-2016​-highlights.pdf (1 MB)
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  • BIOFIN Workbook: Mobilizing Resources for Biodiversity and Sustainable Development

    The 2016 BIOFIN Workbook was developed based on the inputs and lessons generated from BIOFIN implementation in 30 countr

    The 2016 BIOFIN Workbook was developed based on the inputs and lessons generated from BIOFIN implementation in 30 countries: Belize, Brazil, Botswana, Bhutan, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Cuba, Ecuador, Fiji, Georgia, Guatemala, India, Indonesia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Malaysia, Mexico, Mongolia, Mozambique, Peru, Philippines, Rwanda, Seychelles, South Africa, Sri Lanka, Thailand, Uganda, Vietnam and Zambia.

    Click here for more detail.

    BIOFINWorkbook2016.pdf (5 MB)
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  • From MDGs to Sustainable Development For All: Lessons from 15 Years of Practice

    In 2015, world leaders set out to defy the odds, committing themselves to achieve 17 ambitious and far-reaching Sustaina

    In 2015, world leaders set out to defy the odds, committing themselves to achieve 17 ambitious and far-reaching Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) by 2030. This was not the first time the world had attempted to raise the trajectory of human progress by employing Global Goals. In 2000, world leaders blazed a trail by adopting the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). The MDGs were the first attempt to use Global Goals to capture and advance the shared interest we all have, in a more just, peaceful and prosperous world.

    Click here for more detail.

    From the MDGs to SD4All.pdf (3 MB)
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  • The Mekong River in the Economy Report

    The Mekong River in the Economy report aims to reframe the debate around development and river resources management, gui

    The Mekong River in the Economy report aims to reframe the debate around development and river resources management, guiding policy makers towards increased sustainability as well as continued growth.

    The two are not incompatible, but interdependent. The report lays out the benefits of integrating planning in a series of short narratives, highlighting the major risks and opportunities for different sectors within each Lower Mekong Basin country and illustrating how one actor’s development decisions are felt through the entire river system.

    WWF 2016​-Mekong River in the Economy.pdf (6 MB)
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  • Transitioning from the MDGs to the SDGs

    This UNDP-World Bank Report pulls together the main lessons learned from the MDG Reviews for the UN system and for its e

    This UNDP-World Bank Report pulls together the main lessons learned from the MDG Reviews for the UN system and for its engagement at the country level, which took place at the UN System Chief Executives Board for Coordination (CEB). The Reviews, which brought together UN and World Bank Group staff, systematically identified the country situation, the bottlenecks to MDG attainment, and potential solutions to be implemented. Since many MDGs have been absorbed into the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), many of the observations and solutions provided could prove useful to the implementation of the SDGs.

    Click here for more detail.

    Transitioning from the MDGs to the SDGs.pdf (3 MB)
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  • Study On Market & Value Chain Mapping in the Southern Economic Corridor and Southern Coastal Corridor of the Greater Mekong Subregion

    Study of SME Cluster Value Chain of 19 Provinces along the SouthernEconomic Corridor and Southern Coastal Corridor of th

    Study of SME Cluster Value Chain of 19 Provinces along the SouthernEconomic Corridor and Southern Coastal Corridor of the Greater Mekong Subregion.

    Study​_on​_Market​_and​_Value​_Chain​_Mapping.pdf (11 MB)
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  • ADB - Disaster Risk in Asia and the Pacific: Assessment, Management, and Finance

    This report summarizes the proceedings of 3 events: the ADB-OECD Forum on Disaster Risk Financing, and the Global Semina

    This report summarizes the proceedings of 3 events: the ADB-OECD Forum on Disaster Risk Financing, and the Global Seminar on Disaster Risk Financing in September 2015, and the Asian Forum of Insurance Regulators Roundtable in April 2016.

    Click here for detial report.

     

    Source: ADB

    disaster​-risk​-asia​-and​-pacific.pdf (1 MB)
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  • Master Plan on ASEAN Connectivity 2025

    Connectivity in ASEAN encompasses the physical (e.g., transport, ICT, and energy), institutional (e.g., trade, inve

    Connectivity in ASEAN encompasses the physical (e.g., transport, ICT, and energy), institutional (e.g., trade, investment, and services liberalisation), and people-to-people linkages (e.g., education, culture, and tourism) that are the foundational supportive means to achieving the economic, political-security, and socio-cultural pillars of an integrated ASEAN Community.

    Master​-Plan​-on​-ASEAN​-Connectivity​-20251.pdf (2 MB)
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  • Mekong Development Report 2016

    Launched in 1998, the East-West Economic Corridor—encompassing the less developed provinces of Myanmar, Lao PDR, T

    Launched in 1998, the East-West Economic Corridor—encompassing the less developed provinces of Myanmar, Lao PDR, Thailand, and Vietnam—is one of the flagship initiatives of the Greater Mekong Subregion (GMS) in order to improve the economic situation of these areas. Although countries in the EWEC have recently experienced sheer economic growth, unfortunately this growth is unbalanced with the industrial sector growing faster than the agricultural sector, contributing to worsening income inequality. This problem needs to be addressed and tackled urgently as the majority of population depends largely on agriculture, which is declining in its importance. Taken this issue into account, this comprehensive document focuses on three specific agricultural value chains in three target provinces - a rice value chain in Khammouane province of Lao PDR, a coffee value chain in Quang Tri province of Vietnam, and a maize value chain in Kayin State of Myanmar – in order to address prospects and constraints for value chain development, examine costs and margin for each actor in the value chain, and suggest actions to minimize the constraints and maximize the prospects.

    Mekong​_Development​_Report​_r261016.pdf (12 MB)
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  • Video: New Road in Lao PDR Changes Everything

    The Lao People’s Democratic Republic has built a new road with help from ADB linking the tourist town of Luangprab

    The Lao People’s Democratic Republic has built a new road with help from ADB linking the tourist town of Luangprabang with the country’s border with Thailand. Finished in 2014, the 367-km road provides access to goods, services and jobs and new businesses are flourishing along its length.

    Watch the video.

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  • Greater Mekong Subregion Statistics on Growth, Infrastructure, and Trade (Second Edition)

    The document builds on the first edition, with improved quantity and quality of data. The booklet begins with highlights

    The document builds on the first edition, with improved quantity and quality of data. The booklet begins with highlights—a snapshot of the subregion’s performance from 1992 to 2014—growth in output and merchandise trade, developments in information and communication technology, and trends in subregional integration. The five chapters feature macroeconomic data; connectivity indicators in transport, global shipping, and information and communication technology; indicators for transport, trade structure in merchandise and services; and indicators in logistics performance, doing business, competitiveness, trade costs, and trade facilitation.

    ADB 2016 ​-GMS​-Statistics​-2nd​-ed.pdf (867 KB)
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  • Promoting Private Sector Contribution to the Climate Change Response in Cambodia

    The role of the private sector in climate finance will become increasingly important as the country develops. This

    The role of the private sector in climate finance will become increasingly important as the country develops. This report presents results of a study on “Promoting private sector contribution to the climate change response in Cambodia” was conducted at the request of the Department of Climate Change (DCC), General Secretariat of the National Council for Sustainable Development (GSSD) with support from the Cambodia Climate Change Alliance programme (CCCA).

    Promoting Private Sector Contributions to the Climate Change Response in Cambodia.pdf (3 MB)
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  • Viet Nam Environmental Policies and Legislation

    These are law, decree and order related to Vietname Environmental Policies and Legislation. All are in PDF format. Most

    These are law, decree and order related to Vietname Environmental Policies and Legislation. All are in PDF format. Most are in English (unofficial translation) and some are in Vietnamese.

     

    Sources: REDD Vietname

    Vietname​_Decree​_on​_administrative​_violations​_of​_forest​_mgt​_forest​_protection​_and​_development​_and​_forest​_products​_mgt​_11​_Nov​_2013​_Vn.pdf (3 MB) Vietname​_Decree​_on​_collection​_of​_landuse​_fees​_03​_Dec​_2004​_Vn.pdf (262 KB) Vietname​_Decree​_on​_forest​_fire​_prevention​_and​_control​_16​_Jan​_2006​_Vn.pdf (368 KB) Vietname​_Decree​_on​_organization​_and​_management​_of​_the​_special​_use​_forest​_system​_24​_Dec​_2010​_En.pdf (131 KB) Vietname​_Decree​_on​_organization​_and​_operation​_of​_the​_forest protection​_service​_16​_Oct​_2006​_En.pdf (113 KB) Vietname​_Decree​_on​_the​_implementation​_of​_law​_on​_land​_29​_Oct​_2004​_En.pdf (411 KB) Vietname​_Decree​_on​_the​_implementation​_of​_the​_Law​_on​_forest​_protection​_and​_development​_03​_Mar​_2006​_En.pdf (204 KB) Vietname​_Decree​_on​_the​_principles​_and​_methods​_of​_determining​_prices​_of​_forests​_of​_different​_types​_28​_Mar​_2007​_En.pdf (89 KB) Vietname​_Law​_on​_Boidiversity​_28​_Nov​_2008​_En.pdf (116 KB) Vietname​_Law​_on​_Environmental​_Protection​_12​_Dec​_2005​_En.pdf (346 KB) Vietname​_Law​_on​_Forest​_Protection​_and​_Development​_14​_Dec​_2004​_En.pdf (155 KB) Vietname​_Law​_on​_Land​_10​_Dec​_2003​_En.pdf (443 KB) Vietname​_Law​_on​_Royalties​_04​_Dec​_2009​_En.pdf (116 KB)
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  • ADB - Natural Capital and the Rule of Law: Proceedings of the ADB Second Asian Judges Symposium on Environment 2013

    This publication captures the proceedings of the Second Asian Judges Symposium: "Natural Capital and the Rule of Law" he

    This publication captures the proceedings of the Second Asian Judges Symposium: "Natural Capital and the Rule of Law" held 3–5 December 2013 in Manila, the Philippines.

     

    natural​-capital​-and​-rule​-law.pdf (2 MB)
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  • Integrated Planning and Sustainable Development: Challenges and Opportunities

    This Synthesis Report and the eight country studies on which it draws, have been prepared through the Partnership for Ac

    This Synthesis Report and the eight country studies on which it draws, have been prepared through the Partnership for Action on Green Economy (PAGE), with funds from the European Commission. The report illustrates the many different sustainable development pathways that countries are pursuing in line with national priorities and contexts. Its country-based evidence and non-prescriptive findings for policymakers and practitioners highlight the need for integrated and coherent development policies, while illustrating a range of inclusive green economy solutions. As such, this report represents an important addition to the global community’s demand-driven resources for advancing the 2030 Agenda.

    Click here for more detail.

    PAGE​_Integrated​_Planning​_and​_SD​_SynthesisReport.pdf (3 MB)
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  • 2015 UNDP-GEF Annual Performance Report

    This eighth annual performance report of the UNDP Global Environmental Finance (UNDP-GEF) Unit has three primary goals:

    This eighth annual performance report of the UNDP Global Environmental Finance (UNDP-GEF) Unit has three primary goals: one, to provide a snapshot of progress made toward multiple development and environment benefits by projects in each region in 2015 – see Demonstrating Impact; two, to highlight progress made in addressing women, work and the environment – see Gender in Action; and three, to demonstrate the services UNDP provides to the vertical funds that it is accredited to, in particular the Global Environment Facility family of funds – see UNDP-GEF Unit. In addition, development and environment benefits that have been realized through projects and that can be reasonably aggregated at the regional and/or global levels are presented in a series of infographics.  This report demonstrates how investments in the environment in 141 countries are already delivering development benefits. 

    Click here for more detail.

    2015 Annual Performance Report of UNDP​-Supported GEF​-Financed Projects​_DigitalFile.pdf (6 MB)
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  • Natural Connections - How Natural Capital Supports Myanmars People and Economy

    The assessment presented in this report shows where and how Myanmar’s natural capital contributes to clean and rel

    The assessment presented in this report shows where and how Myanmar’s natural capital contributes to clean and reliable drinking water sources, reduced risks from floods inland and storms along the coasts, and to maintaining the functioning of reservoirs and dams by preventing erosion. 

    natural​_connections​_natural capital Myanmar.pdf (7 MB)
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  • State of Sustainability Initiatives Review: Standards and the Blue Economy

    The SSI Review: Standards and the Blue Economy takes a deep dive into the market and performance trends of the 9 most pr

    The SSI Review: Standards and the Blue Economy takes a deep dive into the market and performance trends of the 9 most prevalent seafood certification schemes operating in the wild catch and aquaculture sectors. The Review provides a reference point for buyers, producers, policy makers and consumers in deciding how best to apply voluntary standards in their own decision-making processes.

    ssi​-blue​-economy​-2016.pdf (20 MB)
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  • ASEAN–ADB Cooperation Toward the ASEAN Community

    For the past 5 decades, ASEAN and ADB have both supported poverty reduction, sustainable development, and regional coope

    For the past 5 decades, ASEAN and ADB have both supported poverty reduction, sustainable development, and regional cooperation and integration in Southeast Asia. This publication provides an overview of cooperation between ADB and ASEAN, and how it has contributed to a more connected, competitive, and integrated region.

    ASEAN–ADB Cooperation Toward The ASEAN Community.pdf (5 MB)
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  • Southeast Asia and the Economics of Global Climate Stabilization

    This ADB study focuses on five countries of Southeast Asia that collectively account for 90% of regional GHG emissions

    This ADB study focuses on five countries of Southeast Asia that collectively account for 90% of regional GHG emissions inrecent years—Indonesia, Malaysia, the Philippines, Thailand, and Viet Nam. It applies two global dynamiceconomy–energy–environment models under an array of scenarios that reflect potential regimes forregulating global GHG emissions through 2050. The modeling identifies the potential economic costs of climate inaction for the region, how the countries can most e'ciently achieve GHG emission mitigation, and the consequences of mitigation, both in terms of benefits and costs. Drawing on the modeling results, the study analyzes climate-related policies and identifies how further action can be taken to ensure low-carbon growth.

    ADB​-SEA Economics Global Climate Stabilization.pdf (7 MB)
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  • Achieving Environmental Sustainability in Myanmar

    Myanmar is at a critical crossroads. With many environmental assets, and industrial pressure only beginning to deve

    Myanmar is at a critical crossroads. With many environmental assets, and industrial pressure only beginning to develop, it could effectively form policies and regulations that ensure sustainable growth and conservation of key natural resources. This paper aims to identify current and future environmental problems in Myanmar, the pressures underpinning them, and the policy measures that can manage them.

    ADB 2015​- Achieving Environmental Sustainability Myanmar.pdf (2 MB)
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  • Asian Economic Integration Report 2015: How Can Special Economic Zones Catalyze Economic Development?

    Economic zones have played a key role in economic development in many Asian economies and can be catalysts for econ

    Economic zones have played a key role in economic development in many Asian economies and can be catalysts for economic development, provided the right business environment and policies are put in place.

    In Asia, special economic zones (SEZs) can facilitate trade, investment, and policy reform at a time the region is experiencing a slowdown in trade and economic growth.

    Click here for more detail.

    asian​-economic​-integration​-report​-2015.pdf (6 MB)
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  • Working Paper on Economic, Environmental and Social Impacts of Hydropower Development Lower Mekong Basin

    This working paper is a revised, condensed version of the report ‘Planning Approaches for Water Resources Developm

    This working paper is a revised, condensed version of the report ‘Planning Approaches for Water Resources Development in the Lower Mekong Basin’ by Portland State University, Oregon and Mae Fah Luang University, Chiang Rai (Robert Costanza et al. 2011).

    Working Paper on Economic, Environmental and Social Impacts of Hydropower Development Lower Mekong Basin.pdf (855 KB)
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  • Investing in Natural Capital for a Sustainable Future in the Greater Mekong Subregion

    This report aims to demonstrate the compelling need to increase investments in natural capital in the Greater Mekong Sub

    This report aims to demonstrate the compelling need to increase investments in natural capital in the Greater Mekong Subregion (GMS) and identifies actions now being taken regionally and nationally to manage natural capital. It also proposes a guiding framework for promoting investments and actions by GMS countries to secure natural capital and thus ensure sustainable and inclusive growth in the subregion.

    Investing in Natural Capital Report.pdf (3 MB)
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  • Linking Rapid Erosion of the Mekong River Delta to Human Activities

    This scientific report investigates the link between human activities and erosion in the Mekong Delta. It concludes that

    This scientific report investigates the link between human activities and erosion in the Mekong Delta. It concludes that hydroelectric dams and sand mining are causing considerable, and possibly unrecoverable, erosion damage.

    Linking Rapid Erosion of the Mekong River Delta to Human Activities.pdf (2 MB)
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  • Regional Investment Framework Implementation Plan - First Progress Report

    This ADB report provides the status of the overall Regional Investment Framework Implementation Plan as of 30 June 2015,

    This ADB report provides the status of the overall Regional Investment Framework Implementation Plan as of 30 June 2015, for all sectors, both investment and technical assistance projects.The Greater Mekong Subregion Regional Investment Framework Implementation Plan, 2014-2018 (RIF-IP) identifies a pipeline of 93 high priority investment and technical assistance projects from among the more than 200 projects included in the Greater Mekong Subregion Regional Investment Framework, 2013-2022 (RIF).

    RIF​-ip​-progress​-report.pdf (2 MB)
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  • Economic Analysis of Climate-Proofing Investment Projects

    This ADB report describes the conduct of the cost-benefit analysis of climate proofing investment projects. An important

    This ADB report describes the conduct of the cost-benefit analysis of climate proofing investment projects. An important message is that the presence of uncertainty about climate change does not invalidate the conduct of the economic analysis of investment projects, nor does it require a new type of economic analysis. However, the presence of uncertainty does require a different type of decision-making process in which technical and economic expertise combine to present decision makers with the best possible information on the economic efficiency of alternative designs of investment projects.

    economic​-analysis​-climate​-proofing​-projects.pdf (3 MB)
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  • Greater Mekong Subregion Urban Development Strategic Framework 2015–2022

    This ADB report features Greater Mekong Subregion (GMS) Urban Development Strategic Framework, 2015–2022. It sets

    This ADB report features Greater Mekong Subregion (GMS) Urban Development Strategic Framework, 2015–2022. It sets out a broad framework to encourage and facilitate a coordinated approach to the development of urban areas throughout the GMS. The framework includes three pillars: (i) planning and development of key urban areas, (ii) planning and development of border areas, and (iii) capacity development in urban planning and management. Underlying these are four crosscutting themes—green development and climate change resilience, disaster risk management, inclusive development, and competitiveness. The GMS Urban Development Strategic Framework also provides the context for ongoing and planned projects in the six GMS member countries.

    gms​-urbandev​-framework​-2015​-2022.pdf (4 MB)
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  • Greater Mekong Subregion Statistics On Growth, Connectivity and Sustainable Development (First Edition)

    The booklet has five chapters. Chapter One presents the country progress in achieving the Millennium Development Goals.

    The booklet has five chapters. Chapter One presents the country progress in achieving the Millennium Development Goals. Chapter Two is a regional and country overview of data on production, trade in goods and services, and foreign direct investment. Chapters Three and Four compile indicators in logistics performance, doing business, competitiveness and trade facilitation. Lastly, Chapter Five provides indicators for connectivity, focusing on the transport and information and communications technology sectors.

    gms​-statistics​-1st​-ed.pdf (1 MB)
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  • Achieving the Sustainable Development Goals: From Agenda to Action

    The Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) are the centrepiece of a new global agreement on what society seeks to become o

    The Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) are the centrepiece of a new global agreement on what society seeks to become over the next fifteen years. This agreement envisages a world free from poverty and deprivation, and where the fundamental conditions for human prosperity—healthy ecosystems, a stable climate, and a clean environment—are safely maintained. However, the SDGs do not offer a plan for how to achieve such laudable objectives. This book joins a timely discussion on how the SDGs can be implemented. It deals with how the globally agreed goals can be adapted to national and local circumstances, and what actions can pave the way for achieving them. More specifically, the book focuses on how reforms in governance—the way in which authority is exercised and decisions are taken and executed—can bring the SDG agenda into action.

    Click here for more detail.

    00​_All​_Achieving​_the​_SDGs.pdf (4 MB)
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  • Environmental Impact Assessment Comparative Analysis In Lower Mekong Countries

    This Report examines existing laws, policies, regulations, and guidelines in each Lower Mekong country, and relevant lit

    This Report examines existing laws, policies, regulations, and guidelines in each Lower Mekong country, and relevant literature, to answer the following four questions :

    • What are the specific provisions for public participation in EIA?
    • To what degree are the existing national EIA frameworks already harmonized across the Lower Mekong countries?
    • What major gaps exist, particularly with respect to public participation processes?
    • What specific recommendations can be made for strengthening the EIA process nationally and regionally, specifically with respect to meaningful public participation and stakeholder engagement?

    This Report also examines some regional EIA approaches of the Mekong River Commission, as well as the Asian Development Bank‘s Safeguard Policy Statement (2009).

    Environmental Impact Assessment Comparative Analysis In Lower Mekong Countries.pdf (4 MB)
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  • Strategic Environmental Assessment in the Greater Mekong Subregion

    This brief promotes the value of strategic environmental assessment (SEA) to assist GMS decision makers to more effectiv

    This brief promotes the value of strategic environmental assessment (SEA) to assist GMS decision makers to more effectively balance economic, social, and environmental considerations early in development planning processes. It draws on lessons from the GMS Core Environment Program’s (CEP) experience applying SEA for energy, land use, and subregional strategic planning processes.

    SEA in the GMS.pdf (1 MB)
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  • Green Freight in the Greater Mekong Subregion

    This brief summarizes lessons learned from green freight feasibility analyses conducted under the GMS Core Environment P

    This brief summarizes lessons learned from green freight feasibility analyses conducted under the GMS Core Environment Program between 2010 and 2014. It presents five key messages that policymakers and practitioners need to be aware of while developing strategies and projects to improve road freight fuel efficiency in the GMS. It also provides an overview of the GMS Core Environment Program’s Green Freight Initiative.

    Green Freight in the GMS.pdf (1 MB)
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  • Greater Mekong Subregion Regional Investment Framework Implementation Plan (2014-2018)

    This ADB report features the Greater Mekong Subregion Regional Investment Framework Implementation Plan, 2014-2018 (RIF-

    This ADB report features the Greater Mekong Subregion Regional Investment Framework Implementation Plan, 2014-2018 (RIF-IP). It identifies a robust pipeline of 92 high priority projects from among the more than 200 projects included in the Greater Mekong Subregion Regional Investment Framework, 2013-2022 (RIF). The total cost of the priority projects in the RIF-IP is estimated at US$30.1 billion, or approximately US$20 billion less than all of the projects included in the RIF.

    gms​-rif​-ip​-2014​-2018.pdf (551 KB)
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  • Climate Risk Management in ADB Projects

    This ADB report features how ADB applies climate risk management approach to investment projects in Asia and the Pa

    This ADB report features how ADB applies climate risk management approach to investment projects in Asia and the Pacific, which aims to reduce risks resulting from climate change.

    climate​-risk​-management​-adb​-projects.pdf (3 MB)
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  • Towards a Global Map of Natural Capital - Key Ecosystem Assets

    This report combines information about key ecosystem assets into global maps covering terrestrial and marine realms. The

    This report combines information about key ecosystem assets into global maps covering terrestrial and marine realms. The assets included are freshwater resources, soil quality, organic carbon, terrestrial and marine biodiversity, and global fish catch (as a proxy for marine fish stocks). The report builds on a considerable body of work in the fields of natural capital accounting and the mapping of ecosystem services.

    Towards a Global Map of Natural Capital ​- Key Ecosystem Assets.pdf (6 MB)
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  • Policy Brief: Operationalizing Environmental Economic National Accounts

    This brief draws on the findings and key discussions from the 'Workshop on Valuing and Accounting for the Environment in

    This brief draws on the findings and key discussions from the 'Workshop on Valuing and Accounting for the Environment in Asia,' which was held in Bangkok 8-10 October, 2013. The brief was compiled by the South Asian Network for Development and Environmental Economics (SANDEE). The Core Environment Program provided funding support for the workshop.

    Operationalizing Environmental .pdf (383 KB)
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  • Assessing Impact in the Greater Mekong Subregion: An Analysis of Regional Cooperation Projects

    This ADB report provides a recent major initiative to assess the initial impact of ADB-supported projects under the

    This ADB report provides a recent major initiative to assess the initial impact of ADB-supported projects under the Greater Mekong Subregion Program. As part of this exercise, a range of representative projects in the road transport, health, tourism, and energy sectors were selected for detailed analysis, and research institutes working with international consultants assessed their socioeconomic impact.

    ADB​-Assessing​-Impact​-GMS.pdf (2 MB)
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  • Building Natural Capital: How REDD+ Can Support A Green Economy

    REDD+ is the approach adopted by the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) to reduce greenhouse

    REDD+ is the approach adopted by the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) to reduce greenhouse gas emissions from forests. REDD+ stands for reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation in developing countries, plus conservation, sustainable management of forests and enhancement of forest carbon stocks (UNFCCC, 2010). If systematically pursued, REDD+ would bring new momentum and new funding to the task of preserving the world’s forests. REDD+ is already delivering important outcomes as it brings further world attention to the conservation of tropical forests, monitoring the state of forests, and the contributions of people living in and around forests.

    building​_natural​_capital​_full​_report​_english.pdf (18 MB)
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  • Planning Sustainable Investments in the Greater Mekong Subregion

    This CEP brief summarizes the methodology and lessons learned from a Spatial Multicriteria Assessment (SMCA) recently ap

    This CEP brief summarizes the methodology and lessons learned from a Spatial Multicriteria Assessment (SMCA) recently applied to the GMS Regional Investment Framework. It concludes that SMCA is a valuable tool to help decision makers understand and respond to the economic, environmental, and social risks of investments.  For example, SMCA can assist decision-makers to prioritize investments, determine appropriate land allocation, and plan mitigation measures.

    Planning Sustainable Investments in the GMS​_web.pdf (1 MB)
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  • ADB Environment Operational Directions 2013-2020

    In the context of Strategy 2020 and in the follow-up to the United Nations Conference on Sustainable Development (Rio+20

    In the context of Strategy 2020 and in the follow-up to the United Nations Conference on Sustainable Development (Rio+20), this ADB report provides a coherent overview of ADB environment operations and to articulate how it will step up efforts to help the region achieve a transition to environmentally sustainable growth or green growth. Building on ADB sector and thematic plans, this paper includes a brief review of recent ADB experience in environment operations, and identifies effective approaches for the development of “greener” country partnership strategies, investment projects, and associated knowledge and technical assistance activities. 

    ADB Environment Operational Directions 2013​-2020 ​- Green Growth.pdf (911 KB)
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  • Payments for Forest Environmental Services in Viet Nam - From Policy to Practice

    This CIFOR Occasional Paper assesses the government of Vietnam’s program of Payments for Forest Environmental Serv

    This CIFOR Occasional Paper assesses the government of Vietnam’s program of Payments for Forest Environmental Services (PFES), with the aim of providing policy makers with practical policy recommendations for achieving effective, efficient and equitable outcomes. 

    Payments for Forest Environmental Services in Vietnam ​- From Policy to Practice.pdf (3 MB)
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  • ADB Report on Facilitating Safe Labor Migration in the Greater Mekong Subregion

    This report, prepared by the International Organization for Migration and funded by ADB, highlights issues on labor migr

    This report, prepared by the International Organization for Migration and funded by ADB, highlights issues on labor migration in the GMS and offers recommendations toward increasing social protection for migrants, strengthening capacity and legal framework, and enhancing knowledge management mechanisms.

    ADB facilitating safe labor migration in gms.pdf (2 MB)
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  • GMS Atlas of the Environment - 2nd Edition

    Prepared for the 20th Anniversary of the GMS, this second edition of the Atlas offers a unique overview of the exquisite

    Prepared for the 20th Anniversary of the GMS, this second edition of the Atlas offers a unique overview of the exquisite beauty and diversity of the subregion’s natural environment. It also highlights the tremendous progress made by the GMS countries, as well as the need to address the increasing risks that they face. 


    Access the Atlas here.

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  • GMS: 20 Years of Partnership

    This collection of images illustrates the progress and challenges of 20 years of work in the Greater Mekong Subregion. I

    This collection of images illustrates the progress and challenges of 20 years of work in the Greater Mekong Subregion. It makes no attempt to focus solely on the work of the Asian Development Bank, or any one partner. It is a celebration of the work of everyone who has labored to make the Greater Mekong Subregion into what it is today.

    GMS ​- Twenty Years of Partnership.pdf (6 MB)
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