Economic Development

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Economic damage from natural disasters

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Foreign Direct Investment, inward

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Foreign Direct Investment

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Gross domestic product (current prices)

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Gross domestic product per capita (current prices)

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Environment Projects in GMS Landscapes

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GMS Rice Production

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GMS Sea Ports

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GMS Special Economic Zones (CEZ)

  • Investing in ASEAN 2017

    Since its formation, ASEAN has seen an underdeveloped region grow into one of the most dynamic drivers of today’s

    Since its formation, ASEAN has seen an underdeveloped region grow into one of the most dynamic drivers of today’s global economy. As it marks its fiftieth anniversary in 2017, the Association’s ten member countries are a significant focus of international investment as Southeast Asia’s success story continues, following the formation of the ASEAN Economic Community (AEC).

    Investing​-in​-ASEAN​-2017​-.pdf (5 MB)
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  • Asian Economic Integration Report 2016

    With the continued anemic global economic recovery, trade growth in Asia and the Pacific decelerated in 2015, falling fu

    With the continued anemic global economic recovery, trade growth in Asia and the Pacific decelerated in 2015, falling further behind growth in gross domestic product.

    Click here for detial report.

    AsianEconomicIntegrationReport​-2016​-mainreport.pdf (4 MB) AsianEconomicIntegrationReport​-2016​-highlights.pdf (1 MB)
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  • The Mekong River in the Economy Report

    The Mekong River in the Economy report aims to reframe the debate around development and river resources management, gui

    The Mekong River in the Economy report aims to reframe the debate around development and river resources management, guiding policy makers towards increased sustainability as well as continued growth.

    The two are not incompatible, but interdependent. The report lays out the benefits of integrating planning in a series of short narratives, highlighting the major risks and opportunities for different sectors within each Lower Mekong Basin country and illustrating how one actor’s development decisions are felt through the entire river system.

    WWF 2016​-Mekong River in the Economy.pdf (6 MB)
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  • ADB - Disaster Risk in Asia and the Pacific: Assessment, Management, and Finance

    This report summarizes the proceedings of 3 events: the ADB-OECD Forum on Disaster Risk Financing, and the Global Semina

    This report summarizes the proceedings of 3 events: the ADB-OECD Forum on Disaster Risk Financing, and the Global Seminar on Disaster Risk Financing in September 2015, and the Asian Forum of Insurance Regulators Roundtable in April 2016.

    Click here for detial report.

     

    Source: ADB

    disaster​-risk​-asia​-and​-pacific.pdf (1 MB)
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  • Master Plan on ASEAN Connectivity 2025

    Connectivity in ASEAN encompasses the physical (e.g., transport, ICT, and energy), institutional (e.g., trade, inve

    Connectivity in ASEAN encompasses the physical (e.g., transport, ICT, and energy), institutional (e.g., trade, investment, and services liberalisation), and people-to-people linkages (e.g., education, culture, and tourism) that are the foundational supportive means to achieving the economic, political-security, and socio-cultural pillars of an integrated ASEAN Community.

    Master​-Plan​-on​-ASEAN​-Connectivity​-20251.pdf (2 MB)
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  • Video: New Road in Lao PDR Changes Everything

    The Lao People’s Democratic Republic has built a new road with help from ADB linking the tourist town of Luangprab

    The Lao People’s Democratic Republic has built a new road with help from ADB linking the tourist town of Luangprabang with the country’s border with Thailand. Finished in 2014, the 367-km road provides access to goods, services and jobs and new businesses are flourishing along its length.

    Watch the video.

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  • ADB - Greater Mekong Subregion Statistics on Growth, Infrastructure, and Trade

    This ADB publication provides a snapshot of the GMS subregion's performance from 1992-2014, highlighting growth in outpu

    This ADB publication provides a snapshot of the GMS subregion's performance from 1992-2014, highlighting growth in output and merchandise trade, developments in ICT, and trends in subregional integration.

    ADB 2016 ​-GMS​-Statistics​-2nd​-ed.pdf (867 KB)
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  • Promoting Private Sector Contribution to the Climate Change Response in Cambodia

    The role of the private sector in climate finance will become increasingly important as the country develops. This

    The role of the private sector in climate finance will become increasingly important as the country develops. This report presents results of a study on “Promoting private sector contribution to the climate change response in Cambodia” was conducted at the request of the Department of Climate Change (DCC), General Secretariat of the National Council for Sustainable Development (GSSD) with support from the Cambodia Climate Change Alliance programme (CCCA).

    Promoting Private Sector Contributions to the Climate Change Response in Cambodia.pdf (3 MB)
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  • Viet Nam Environmental Policies and Legislation

    These are law, decree and order related to Vietname Environmental Policies and Legislation. All are in PDF format. Most

    These are law, decree and order related to Vietname Environmental Policies and Legislation. All are in PDF format. Most are in English (unofficial translation) and some are in Vietnamese.

     

    Sources: REDD Vietname

    Vietname​_Decree​_on​_administrative​_violations​_of​_forest​_mgt​_forest​_protection​_and​_development​_and​_forest​_products​_mgt​_11​_Nov​_2013​_Vn.pdf (3 MB) Vietname​_Decree​_on​_collection​_of​_landuse​_fees​_03​_Dec​_2004​_Vn.pdf (262 KB) Vietname​_Decree​_on​_forest​_fire​_prevention​_and​_control​_16​_Jan​_2006​_Vn.pdf (368 KB) Vietname​_Decree​_on​_organization​_and​_management​_of​_the​_special​_use​_forest​_system​_24​_Dec​_2010​_En.pdf (131 KB) Vietname​_Decree​_on​_organization​_and​_operation​_of​_the​_forest protection​_service​_16​_Oct​_2006​_En.pdf (113 KB) Vietname​_Decree​_on​_the​_implementation​_of​_law​_on​_land​_29​_Oct​_2004​_En.pdf (411 KB) Vietname​_Decree​_on​_the​_implementation​_of​_the​_Law​_on​_forest​_protection​_and​_development​_03​_Mar​_2006​_En.pdf (204 KB) Vietname​_Decree​_on​_the​_principles​_and​_methods​_of​_determining​_prices​_of​_forests​_of​_different​_types​_28​_Mar​_2007​_En.pdf (89 KB) Vietname​_Law​_on​_Boidiversity​_28​_Nov​_2008​_En.pdf (116 KB) Vietname​_Law​_on​_Environmental​_Protection​_12​_Dec​_2005​_En.pdf (346 KB) Vietname​_Law​_on​_Forest​_Protection​_and​_Development​_14​_Dec​_2004​_En.pdf (155 KB) Vietname​_Law​_on​_Land​_10​_Dec​_2003​_En.pdf (443 KB) Vietname​_Law​_on​_Royalties​_04​_Dec​_2009​_En.pdf (116 KB)
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  • ADB - Natural Capital and the Rule of Law: Proceedings of the ADB Second Asian Judges Symposium on Environment 2013

    This publication captures the proceedings of the Second Asian Judges Symposium: "Natural Capital and the Rule of Law" he

    This publication captures the proceedings of the Second Asian Judges Symposium: "Natural Capital and the Rule of Law" held 3–5 December 2013 in Manila, the Philippines.

     

    natural​-capital​-and​-rule​-law.pdf (2 MB)
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  • Natural Connections - How Natural Capital Supports Myanmars People and Economy

    The assessment presented in this report shows where and how Myanmar’s natural capital contributes to clean and rel

    The assessment presented in this report shows where and how Myanmar’s natural capital contributes to clean and reliable drinking water sources, reduced risks from floods inland and storms along the coasts, and to maintaining the functioning of reservoirs and dams by preventing erosion. 

    natural​_connections​_natural capital Myanmar.pdf (7 MB)
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  • ASEAN–ADB Cooperation Toward the ASEAN Community

    For the past 5 decades, ASEAN and ADB have both supported poverty reduction, sustainable development, and regional coope

    For the past 5 decades, ASEAN and ADB have both supported poverty reduction, sustainable development, and regional cooperation and integration in Southeast Asia. This publication provides an overview of cooperation between ADB and ASEAN, and how it has contributed to a more connected, competitive, and integrated region.

    ASEAN–ADB Cooperation Toward The ASEAN Community.pdf (5 MB)
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  • Southeast Asia and the Economics of Global Climate Stabilization

    This ADB study focuses on five countries of Southeast Asia that collectively account for 90% of regional GHG emissions

    This ADB study focuses on five countries of Southeast Asia that collectively account for 90% of regional GHG emissions inrecent years—Indonesia, Malaysia, the Philippines, Thailand, and Viet Nam. It applies two global dynamiceconomy–energy–environment models under an array of scenarios that reflect potential regimes forregulating global GHG emissions through 2050. The modeling identifies the potential economic costs of climate inaction for the region, how the countries can most e'ciently achieve GHG emission mitigation, and the consequences of mitigation, both in terms of benefits and costs. Drawing on the modeling results, the study analyzes climate-related policies and identifies how further action can be taken to ensure low-carbon growth.

    ADB​-SEA Economics Global Climate Stabilization.pdf (7 MB)
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  • Achieving Environmental Sustainability in Myanmar

    Myanmar is at a critical crossroads. With many environmental assets, and industrial pressure only beginning to deve

    Myanmar is at a critical crossroads. With many environmental assets, and industrial pressure only beginning to develop, it could effectively form policies and regulations that ensure sustainable growth and conservation of key natural resources. This paper aims to identify current and future environmental problems in Myanmar, the pressures underpinning them, and the policy measures that can manage them.

    ADB 2015​- Achieving Environmental Sustainability Myanmar.pdf (2 MB)
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  • Working Paper on Economic, Environmental and Social Impacts of Hydropower Development Lower Mekong Basin

    This working paper is a revised, condensed version of the report ‘Planning Approaches for Water Resources Developm

    This working paper is a revised, condensed version of the report ‘Planning Approaches for Water Resources Development in the Lower Mekong Basin’ by Portland State University, Oregon and Mae Fah Luang University, Chiang Rai (Robert Costanza et al. 2011).

    Working Paper on Economic, Environmental and Social Impacts of Hydropower Development Lower Mekong Basin.pdf (855 KB)
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  • Investing in Natural Capital for a Sustainable Future in the Greater Mekong Subregion

    This report aims to demonstrate the compelling need to increase investments in natural capital in the Greater Mekong Sub

    This report aims to demonstrate the compelling need to increase investments in natural capital in the Greater Mekong Subregion (GMS) and identifies actions now being taken regionally and nationally to manage natural capital. It also proposes a guiding framework for promoting investments and actions by GMS countries to secure natural capital and thus ensure sustainable and inclusive growth in the subregion.

    Investing in Natural Capital Report.pdf (3 MB)
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  • Linking Rapid Erosion of the Mekong River Delta to Human Activities

    This scientific report investigates the link between human activities and erosion in the Mekong Delta. It concludes that

    This scientific report investigates the link between human activities and erosion in the Mekong Delta. It concludes that hydroelectric dams and sand mining are causing considerable, and possibly unrecoverable, erosion damage.

    Linking Rapid Erosion of the Mekong River Delta to Human Activities.pdf (2 MB)
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  • Regional Investment Framework Implementation Plan - First Progress Report

    This ADB report provides the status of the overall Regional Investment Framework Implementation Plan as of 30 June 2015,

    This ADB report provides the status of the overall Regional Investment Framework Implementation Plan as of 30 June 2015, for all sectors, both investment and technical assistance projects.The Greater Mekong Subregion Regional Investment Framework Implementation Plan, 2014-2018 (RIF-IP) identifies a pipeline of 93 high priority investment and technical assistance projects from among the more than 200 projects included in the Greater Mekong Subregion Regional Investment Framework, 2013-2022 (RIF).

    RIF​-ip​-progress​-report.pdf (2 MB)
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  • Economic Analysis of Climate-Proofing Investment Projects

    This ADB report describes the conduct of the cost-benefit analysis of climate proofing investment projects. An important

    This ADB report describes the conduct of the cost-benefit analysis of climate proofing investment projects. An important message is that the presence of uncertainty about climate change does not invalidate the conduct of the economic analysis of investment projects, nor does it require a new type of economic analysis. However, the presence of uncertainty does require a different type of decision-making process in which technical and economic expertise combine to present decision makers with the best possible information on the economic efficiency of alternative designs of investment projects.

    economic​-analysis​-climate​-proofing​-projects.pdf (3 MB)
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  • Greater Mekong Subregion Urban Development Strategic Framework 2015–2022

    This ADB report features Greater Mekong Subregion (GMS) Urban Development Strategic Framework, 2015–2022. It sets

    This ADB report features Greater Mekong Subregion (GMS) Urban Development Strategic Framework, 2015–2022. It sets out a broad framework to encourage and facilitate a coordinated approach to the development of urban areas throughout the GMS. The framework includes three pillars: (i) planning and development of key urban areas, (ii) planning and development of border areas, and (iii) capacity development in urban planning and management. Underlying these are four crosscutting themes—green development and climate change resilience, disaster risk management, inclusive development, and competitiveness. The GMS Urban Development Strategic Framework also provides the context for ongoing and planned projects in the six GMS member countries.

    gms​-urbandev​-framework​-2015​-2022.pdf (4 MB)
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  • Environmental Impact Assessment Comparative Analysis In Lower Mekong Countries

    This Report examines existing laws, policies, regulations, and guidelines in each Lower Mekong country, and relevant lit

    This Report examines existing laws, policies, regulations, and guidelines in each Lower Mekong country, and relevant literature, to answer the following four questions :

    • What are the specific provisions for public participation in EIA?
    • To what degree are the existing national EIA frameworks already harmonized across the Lower Mekong countries?
    • What major gaps exist, particularly with respect to public participation processes?
    • What specific recommendations can be made for strengthening the EIA process nationally and regionally, specifically with respect to meaningful public participation and stakeholder engagement?

    This Report also examines some regional EIA approaches of the Mekong River Commission, as well as the Asian Development Bank‘s Safeguard Policy Statement (2009).

    Environmental Impact Assessment Comparative Analysis In Lower Mekong Countries.pdf (4 MB)
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  • Strategic Environmental Assessment in the Greater Mekong Subregion

    This brief promotes the value of strategic environmental assessment (SEA) to assist GMS decision makers to more effectiv

    This brief promotes the value of strategic environmental assessment (SEA) to assist GMS decision makers to more effectively balance economic, social, and environmental considerations early in development planning processes. It draws on lessons from the GMS Core Environment Program’s (CEP) experience applying SEA for energy, land use, and subregional strategic planning processes.

    SEA in the GMS.pdf (1 MB)
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  • Green Freight in the Greater Mekong Subregion

    This brief summarizes lessons learned from green freight feasibility analyses conducted under the GMS Core Environment P

    This brief summarizes lessons learned from green freight feasibility analyses conducted under the GMS Core Environment Program between 2010 and 2014. It presents five key messages that policymakers and practitioners need to be aware of while developing strategies and projects to improve road freight fuel efficiency in the GMS. It also provides an overview of the GMS Core Environment Program’s Green Freight Initiative.

    Green Freight in the GMS.pdf (1 MB)
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  • Greater Mekong Subregion Regional Investment Framework Implementation Plan (2014-2018)

    This ADB report features the Greater Mekong Subregion Regional Investment Framework Implementation Plan, 2014-2018 (RIF-

    This ADB report features the Greater Mekong Subregion Regional Investment Framework Implementation Plan, 2014-2018 (RIF-IP). It identifies a robust pipeline of 92 high priority projects from among the more than 200 projects included in the Greater Mekong Subregion Regional Investment Framework, 2013-2022 (RIF). The total cost of the priority projects in the RIF-IP is estimated at US$30.1 billion, or approximately US$20 billion less than all of the projects included in the RIF.

    gms​-rif​-ip​-2014​-2018.pdf (551 KB)
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  • Climate Risk Management in ADB Projects

    This ADB report features how ADB applies climate risk management approach to investment projects in Asia and the Pa

    This ADB report features how ADB applies climate risk management approach to investment projects in Asia and the Pacific, which aims to reduce risks resulting from climate change.

    climate​-risk​-management​-adb​-projects.pdf (3 MB)
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  • Towards a Global Map of Natural Capital - Key Ecosystem Assets

    This report combines information about key ecosystem assets into global maps covering terrestrial and marine realms. The

    This report combines information about key ecosystem assets into global maps covering terrestrial and marine realms. The assets included are freshwater resources, soil quality, organic carbon, terrestrial and marine biodiversity, and global fish catch (as a proxy for marine fish stocks). The report builds on a considerable body of work in the fields of natural capital accounting and the mapping of ecosystem services.

    Towards a Global Map of Natural Capital ​- Key Ecosystem Assets.pdf (6 MB)
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  • Policy Brief: Operationalizing Environmental Economic National Accounts

    This brief draws on the findings and key discussions from the 'Workshop on Valuing and Accounting for the Environment in

    This brief draws on the findings and key discussions from the 'Workshop on Valuing and Accounting for the Environment in Asia,' which was held in Bangkok 8-10 October, 2013. The brief was compiled by the South Asian Network for Development and Environmental Economics (SANDEE). The Core Environment Program provided funding support for the workshop.

    Operationalizing Environmental .pdf (383 KB)
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  • Assessing Impact in the Greater Mekong Subregion: An Analysis of Regional Cooperation Projects

    This ADB report provides a recent major initiative to assess the initial impact of ADB-supported projects under the

    This ADB report provides a recent major initiative to assess the initial impact of ADB-supported projects under the Greater Mekong Subregion Program. As part of this exercise, a range of representative projects in the road transport, health, tourism, and energy sectors were selected for detailed analysis, and research institutes working with international consultants assessed their socioeconomic impact.

    ADB​-Assessing​-Impact​-GMS.pdf (2 MB)
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  • Planning Sustainable Investments in the Greater Mekong Subregion

    This CEP brief summarizes the methodology and lessons learned from a Spatial Multicriteria Assessment (SMCA) recently ap

    This CEP brief summarizes the methodology and lessons learned from a Spatial Multicriteria Assessment (SMCA) recently applied to the GMS Regional Investment Framework. It concludes that SMCA is a valuable tool to help decision makers understand and respond to the economic, environmental, and social risks of investments.  For example, SMCA can assist decision-makers to prioritize investments, determine appropriate land allocation, and plan mitigation measures.

    Planning Sustainable Investments in the GMS​_web.pdf (1 MB)
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  • ADB Environment Operational Directions 2013-2020

    In the context of Strategy 2020 and in the follow-up to the United Nations Conference on Sustainable Development (Rio+20

    In the context of Strategy 2020 and in the follow-up to the United Nations Conference on Sustainable Development (Rio+20), this ADB report provides a coherent overview of ADB environment operations and to articulate how it will step up efforts to help the region achieve a transition to environmentally sustainable growth or green growth. Building on ADB sector and thematic plans, this paper includes a brief review of recent ADB experience in environment operations, and identifies effective approaches for the development of “greener” country partnership strategies, investment projects, and associated knowledge and technical assistance activities. 

    ADB Environment Operational Directions 2013​-2020 ​- Green Growth.pdf (911 KB)
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  • Payments for Forest Environmental Services in Viet Nam - From Policy to Practice

    This CIFOR Occasional Paper assesses the government of Vietnam’s program of Payments for Forest Environmental Serv

    This CIFOR Occasional Paper assesses the government of Vietnam’s program of Payments for Forest Environmental Services (PFES), with the aim of providing policy makers with practical policy recommendations for achieving effective, efficient and equitable outcomes. 

    Payments for Forest Environmental Services in Vietnam ​- From Policy to Practice.pdf (3 MB)
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  • ADB Report on Facilitating Safe Labor Migration in the Greater Mekong Subregion

    This report, prepared by the International Organization for Migration and funded by ADB, highlights issues on labor migr

    This report, prepared by the International Organization for Migration and funded by ADB, highlights issues on labor migration in the GMS and offers recommendations toward increasing social protection for migrants, strengthening capacity and legal framework, and enhancing knowledge management mechanisms.

    ADB facilitating safe labor migration in gms.pdf (2 MB)
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  • GMS Atlas of the Environment - 2nd Edition

    Prepared for the 20th Anniversary of the GMS, this second edition of the Atlas offers a unique overview of the exquisite

    Prepared for the 20th Anniversary of the GMS, this second edition of the Atlas offers a unique overview of the exquisite beauty and diversity of the subregion’s natural environment. It also highlights the tremendous progress made by the GMS countries, as well as the need to address the increasing risks that they face. 


    Access the Atlas here.

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  • GMS: 20 Years of Partnership

    This collection of images illustrates the progress and challenges of 20 years of work in the Greater Mekong Subregion. I

    This collection of images illustrates the progress and challenges of 20 years of work in the Greater Mekong Subregion. It makes no attempt to focus solely on the work of the Asian Development Bank, or any one partner. It is a celebration of the work of everyone who has labored to make the Greater Mekong Subregion into what it is today.

    GMS ​- Twenty Years of Partnership.pdf (6 MB)
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