Urban Environment

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Percentage of urban population with access to improved sanitation facilities

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Percentage of urban population with access to improved water sources

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Proportion of urban population

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GMS Population 2010

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GMS Population 2014

  • The Emissions Gap Report 2017: A UNEP synthesis report

    The goal of the Paris Agreement on climate change, as agreed at the Conference of the Parties in 2015, is to keep global

    The goal of the Paris Agreement on climate change, as agreed at the Conference of the Parties in 2015, is to keep global temperature rise this century to well below 2 degrees Celsius above pre-industrial levels. It also calls for efforts to limit the temperature increase even further to 1.5 degrees Celsius.

    The UN Environment Emissions Gap Report 2017 presents an assessment of current national mitigation efforts and the ambitions countries have presented in their Nationally Determined Contributions, which form the foundation of the Paris Agreement.

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    EGR​_2017.pdf (3 MB)
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  • Towards a pollution-free planet: background report

    Pollution today is pervasive and persistent. While the world has achieved significant economic growth over the past few

    Pollution today is pervasive and persistent. While the world has achieved significant economic growth over the past few decades, it has been accompanied by large amounts of pollution, with significant impacts on human health and ecosystems and the ways in which some of the major Earth system processes, such as the climate, are functioning. This report describes the pollution challenge, explores what is already being done to address pollution, and proposes 50 focused and actionable interventions to address pollution in all its forms. The report is a call to act towards a pollution-free planet.

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    UNEA​_towardspollution​_long version​_Web.pdf (5 MB)
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  • Gender, The Environment and Sustainable Development in Asia and the Pacific

    The 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development strives for more balanced development by addressing the economic, social and

    The 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development strives for more balanced development by addressing the economic, social and environmental dimensions holistically. The momentum set forth by this agenda provides an historic opportunity for reducing inequality and closing gender gaps. Gender, The Environment and Sustainable Development in Asia and the Pacific examines the intersections between gender and the environment at the household, work, community and policy levels, particularly in the spheres of food security and agriculture, energy, water, fisheries and forestry, with a view to providing strategic entry points for policy interventions. Based on a grounded study of the reality in the Asia-Pacific region, this report assembles good practices and policy lessons that could be capitalized on to advance the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development.

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    SDD​-Gender​-Environment​-report.pdf (4 MB)
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  • Key Indicators for Asia and the Pacific 2017

    The Key Indicators presents the latest statistics on a comprehensive set of economic, financial, social, environmental,

    The Key Indicators presents the latest statistics on a comprehensive set of economic, financial, social, environmental, and Sustainable Development Goal (SDG) indicators for the 48 regional members of the Asian Development Bank. It is designed to serve as a resource for information on development issues across the region for a wide audience, including policy makers, development practitioners, government officials, researchers, students, and the general public.

    A key component of this year’s report is a summary of findings from three pilot household surveys to support the development of standardized methods and guidelines for collecting sex-disaggregated data on asset ownership.

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    key​-indicators​-2017.pdf (6 MB)
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  • Catalyzing Green Finance: A Concept for Leveraging Blended Finance for Green Development

    This publication describes an innovative financing solution for enhancing both financially bankable as well as environme

    This publication describes an innovative financing solution for enhancing both financially bankable as well as environmentally sustainable infrastructure projects. A large financing need challenges climate-adjusted infrastructure in developing Asia, estimated at $26 trillion till 2030. This necessitates crowding-in private sources to meet financing, efficiency, and technology gaps. However, a lack of bankable projects is a major hurdle. This publication suggests one possible innovative financing approach. The Green Finance Catalyzing Facility (GFCF) proposes a blended finance framework for governments and development entities to better leverage development funds for risk mitigation, generate a pipeline of bankable green infrastructure projects, and directly catalyze private finance. The GFCF provides useful inputs for the current debate on mainstreaming green finance into country financial systems.

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    catalyzing​-green​-finance.pdf (9 MB)
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  • Regional Road Map for Implementing the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development in Asia and the Pacific

    At the global level in 2015 countries set in motion the most far reaching and ambitious development agenda of our time,

    At the global level in 2015 countries set in motion the most far reaching and ambitious development agenda of our time, the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development. In Asia and the Pacific, countries have already begun translating this ambitious agenda into action and many have already set up the national architecture for coordinating and promoting the implementation of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). However, the policy transformations required to put countries on track to achieve the SDGs have yet to take shape across this or any other region. Business as usual policies and investments are locking countries into unsustainable pathways that will create a gap between ambition and action.

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    Final SDG Roadmap​_Updated Logo.pdf (631 KB)
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  • Statistical Yearbook for Asia and the Pacific 2016: SDG Baseline Report

    The report presents the SDG baseline for the Asia and the Pacific both at the regional and sub-regional levels for selec

    The report presents the SDG baseline for the Asia and the Pacific both at the regional and sub-regional levels for selected targets of each SDG. The main objective of the Report is to highlight critical gaps and challenges of the region in achieving the SDGs and inform inter-governmental and inter-agency regional decision making in support of implementing the 2030 development agenda in the region.

    The report is organized in three parts:

    • Part I provides a regional snapshot of progress since 2000 (starting of the MDGs) and acceleration that is required in order for the region to achieve the 16 goals by 2030. This is further elaborated in a dashboard across the target areas, highlighting the size of the gaps between a “business-as-usual” scenario and the required pace of progress by 2030.
    • Part II then sets out a more detailed, goal by goal baseline for the region for selected targets, drawing on the latest data available on the proposed global indicators as well as supplementary statistical information.
    • Part III concludes by highlighting key findings of the baseline report and the regional vision for transforming official statistics to tackle challenges in meeting the statistics and data requirements for the follow-up and review of the 2030 agenda. It also emphasize critical role of data disaggregation for achieving the leave-no-one-behind ambition of the SDGs.

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    ESCAP​_SYB2016​_SDG​_baseline​_report.pdf (28 MB)
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  • Green Technology Choices: The Environmental and Resource Implications of Low-Carbon Technologies

    Big wins for human health, natural resources in switch to energy efficiency

    Big wins for human health, natural resources in switch to energy efficiency

    • Low-carbon technologies aid clean air, save water and cut land use
    • 25 billion tonnes of greenhouse gas emissions and 17 million tonnes of particulates a year could be avoided through low-carbon and energy efficiency technologies
    report​_green​_technology​_choices​-final​-2​_web​_090517.pdf (5 MB)
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  • Banking on the Future of Asia and the Pacific: 50 Years of The Asian Development Bank

    This book is a history of the Asian Development Bank (ADB), a multilateral development bank established 50 years ago to

    This book is a history of the Asian Development Bank (ADB), a multilateral development bank established 50 years ago to serve Asia and the Pacific.

    Focusing on the region’s economic development, the evolution of the international development agenda, and the story of ADB itself, Banking on the Future of Asia and the Pacific raises several key questions: What are the outstanding features of regional development to which ADB had to respond? How has the bank grown and evolved in changing circumstances? How did ADB’s successive leaders promote reforms while preserving continuity with the efforts of their predecessors? ADB has played an important role in the transformation of Asia and the Pacific over the past 50 years. As ADB continues to evolve and adapt to the region’s changing development landscape, the experiences highlighted in this book can provide valuable insight on how best to serve Asia and the Pacific in the future.

    50years​-adb.pdf (5 MB)
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  • SEI Annual Report 2016

    SEI Annual Report 2016

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  • Clean Energy Financing Partnership Facility: Annual Report 2016

    ADB's Clean Energy Financing Partnership continues to provide critical financial support to clean energy projects with $

    ADB's Clean Energy Financing Partnership continues to provide critical financial support to clean energy projects with $2.1 billion in clean energy investments in 2016.

    The Clean Energy Financing Partnership Facility (CEFPF) was established by ADB in April 2007, to assist developing member countries improve energy security and transit to low-carbon use through cost-effective investments, particularly in technologies that result in greenhouse gas mitigation. CEFPF is composed of the Clean Energy Fund, the Asian Clean Energy Fund, the Carbon Capture and Storage Fund and the Canadian Climate Fund for the Private Sector in Asia. The Facility contributes to the energy sector in achieving the scaled up ADB’s annual target set in September 2015, ADB pledged to double its annual climate financing to $6 billion by 2020, with $4 billion for climate mitigation and $2 billion for climate adaptation. The energy sector is expected to contribute about $3 billion to climate mitigation.

    This annual report provides CEFPF's operational results and overall implementation progress from 1 January to 31 December 2016.

    cefpf​-annual​-report​-2016.pdf (3 MB)
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  • Earth Observation for a Transforming Asia and Pacific

    Satellite-based environmental information are innovative solutions that can provide new ways for ADB to serve and addres

    Satellite-based environmental information are innovative solutions that can provide new ways for ADB to serve and address development challenges.

    This report summarizes results of the initiative Earth Observation for a Transforming Asia and Pacific (EOTAP), that brought together the European Space Agency (ESA) and ADB to promote and demonstrate satellite Earth Observation in support of ADB’s investments in its developing member countries (DMCs).

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    earth​-observation​-asia​-pacific.pdf (13 MB)
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  • FAO and the SDGs

    On 25 September 2015, the 193 Member States of the United Nations adopted the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development &n

    On 25 September 2015, the 193 Member States of the United Nations adopted the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development – including 17 Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) and 169 targets – committing the international community to end poverty and hunger and achieve sustainable development between 2016 and 2030. Six months later, a global indicator framework for the SDGs – comprising 230 indicators - was identified to monitor the 169 targets and track progress, becoming the foundation of the SDGs’ accountability structure. The number of indicators - four times greater than for the MDGs - represents an immense challenge for countries. FAO - proposed ‘custodian’ UN agency for 21 SDG indicators and a contributing agency for six more – can assist countries in meeting the new monitoring challenges. This publication presents FAO’s work in developing and strengthening indicators that measure food, agriculture and the sustainable use of natural resources, shining a light on the 21 indicators of FAO custodianship. It describes how the organization can support countries track progress and make the connection between monitoring and policymaking to achieve the SDGs.

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    a​-i6919e.pdf (2 MB)
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  • Waste Management in Myanmar: Current Status, Key Challenges and Recommendations for National and City Waste Management Strategies

    This policy report reviews the current status of waste management in Myanmar and confirms that it remains at a prelimina

    This policy report reviews the current status of waste management in Myanmar and confirms that it remains at a preliminary stage, attributed to challenges at both the national and city levels resulting from a range of technical, social, economic and institutional constraints. Accordingly, the overall guidance of this report is the need for Myanmar to develop a national waste management strategy to serve as a principal framework for waste policies and practices across the country; such a strategy should be designed with a view towards supporting city-level strategies and actions, and focus on the piloting and execution of concrete actions led by Township and City Development Committees. In order to ensure that these national and city waste management strategies are implemented in a coordinated, cost-effective and efficient manner, the report concludes by providing a number of policy recommendations.

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    POLICY REPORT​_​_Myanmar.final​_.2017.01.31rev.pdf (7 MB)
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  • Nature-Based Solutions for Building Resilience in Towns and Cities: Case Studies from the Greater Mekong Subregion

    Green infrastructure can play a significant role in offsetting losses from climate-related disasters and contribute to b

    Green infrastructure can play a significant role in offsetting losses from climate-related disasters and contribute to building resilience through rehabilitation and expansion of natural ecosystems within built areas.

    Urban populations are projected to increase from 54% to 66% of the global population by 2050, with close to 90% of the increase concentrated in Asia and Africa. Cities and towns—a growing source of greenhouse gas emissions—will need to address challenges posed by climate change. A nature-based approach in identifying climate change vulnerabilities and developing relevant adaptation options was conducted in three towns of the Greater Mekong Subregion (GMS).

    Working with local governments, nongovernment organizations, women’s groups, and professional associations, town-wide adaptation measures were defined by overlaying climate change projections on town plans and zoning schemes for strategic infrastructure. This publication captures valuable experience and lessons from the project.

    nature​-based​-solutions.pdf (6 MB)
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  • Guidance Note | Municipal Solid Waste Management in Crisis and Post-Crisis Setting

    This guidance note aims to support Government counterparts and strengthen UNDP Country Offices’ and implementing p

    This guidance note aims to support Government counterparts and strengthen UNDP Country Offices’ and implementing partners’ capacities to plan, design and implement projects for municipal solid waste management (MSWM) in crisis or post-crisis settings, as part of UNDP’s early recovery response.

    The Guidance Note focuses in particular on livelihoods recovery and local government service delivery. It is assumed that readers do not have extensive experience in the area of MSWM. The guidance note is intended to inform UNDP Country Offices and implementing partners on the type of programmes UNDP could support in the area of MSWM in an early recovery setting, and provide information on how to plan, design and implement such projects.

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    GuidanceNote​_Solid​_Waste​_Management.pdf (2 MB)
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  • From MDGs to Sustainable Development For All: Lessons from 15 Years of Practice

    In 2015, world leaders set out to defy the odds, committing themselves to achieve 17 ambitious and far-reaching Sustaina

    In 2015, world leaders set out to defy the odds, committing themselves to achieve 17 ambitious and far-reaching Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) by 2030. This was not the first time the world had attempted to raise the trajectory of human progress by employing Global Goals. In 2000, world leaders blazed a trail by adopting the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). The MDGs were the first attempt to use Global Goals to capture and advance the shared interest we all have, in a more just, peaceful and prosperous world.

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    From the MDGs to SD4All.pdf (3 MB)
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  • Transitioning from the MDGs to the SDGs

    This UNDP-World Bank Report pulls together the main lessons learned from the MDG Reviews for the UN system and for its e

    This UNDP-World Bank Report pulls together the main lessons learned from the MDG Reviews for the UN system and for its engagement at the country level, which took place at the UN System Chief Executives Board for Coordination (CEB). The Reviews, which brought together UN and World Bank Group staff, systematically identified the country situation, the bottlenecks to MDG attainment, and potential solutions to be implemented. Since many MDGs have been absorbed into the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), many of the observations and solutions provided could prove useful to the implementation of the SDGs.

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    Transitioning from the MDGs to the SDGs.pdf (3 MB)
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  • Asian Development Outlook 2016 Update: Meeting the Low-Carbon Growth Challenge

    Growth has held up in developing Asia despite a difficult external environment. The region is expected to grow steadily

    Growth has held up in developing Asia despite a difficult external environment. The region is expected to grow steadily at 5.7% in 2016 and 2017, the forecasts in this Update unchanged from Asian Development Outlook 2016.

    Follow the link for more detial.

    ado2016​-update.pdf (6 MB) ado2016​-update​-highlights.pdf (793 KB)
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  • Myanmar Environmental Policies and Legislation

    Myanmar Environmental Policies and Legislation are available at:

    Myanmar Environmental Policies and Legislation are available at:

          -Myanmar Parliament website

          -Mekong Law Center website

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  • China Environmental Policies and Legislation

    Environmental laws, environment related laws, environment related regulations and regulation interpretaton of The People

    Environmental laws, environment related laws, environment related regulations and regulation interpretaton of The People's Republic of China are available on Ministry of Environmental Protection website.

    Source: Ministry of Environmental Protection.

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  • Thailand Environmental Policies and Legislation

    Thailand Environmental Policies and Legislation are available to download from:      -Pollutional Control

    Thailand Environmental Policies and Legislation are available to download from:
          -Pollutional Control Department website, MoNRE.

          -Office of the Council of State website

          -Mekong Regional Law Center

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  • ADB - Urban Development in the Greater Mekong Subregion

    Urbanization is set to play an ever greater role in the development of the Greater Mekong Subregion (GMS) countries, tra

    Urbanization is set to play an ever greater role in the development of the Greater Mekong Subregion (GMS) countries, transforming their economies and providing support to green economic growth.

    Follow the link for more detial.

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  • Carbofuran poisoning at the interface between wildlife, livestock and humans.

    Between January and August 2015, a series of animal mortality and human morbidity events in PreahVihear Province, were d

    Between January and August 2015, a series of animal mortality and human morbidity events in PreahVihear Province, were detected by the LACANET wildlife disease surveillance network. Initial findingsraised suspicions towards a link to pesticide use. Given the morbidity and mortality risks for humans,livestock, and endangered species, a thorough investigation was initiated. This document reports theresults of this investigation.

    This report was produced by the Wildlife Conservation Society with contribution from Dr MathieuPruvot (WCS), Alistair Mould (WCS), and Dr Mei Castor (US-CDC). Follow the link for more detial about WCS Cambodia.

    Carbofuran poisoning at the interface between wildlife, livestock and humans, June 2016.pdf (730 KB)
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  • The State of Environmental Migration 2015 – A review of 2014

    The State of Environmental Migration series gathers the expertise of researchers, students and professionals to provide

    The State of Environmental Migration series gathers the expertise of researchers, students and professionals to provide an annual assessment of the changing nature and dynamics of environment- and climate-related migration throughout the world.

    state​_environmental​_migration​_2014​_0​_0.pdf (5 MB)
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  • Integrated Planning and Sustainable Development: Challenges and Opportunities

    This Synthesis Report and the eight country studies on which it draws, have been prepared through the Partnership for Ac

    This Synthesis Report and the eight country studies on which it draws, have been prepared through the Partnership for Action on Green Economy (PAGE), with funds from the European Commission. The report illustrates the many different sustainable development pathways that countries are pursuing in line with national priorities and contexts. Its country-based evidence and non-prescriptive findings for policymakers and practitioners highlight the need for integrated and coherent development policies, while illustrating a range of inclusive green economy solutions. As such, this report represents an important addition to the global community’s demand-driven resources for advancing the 2030 Agenda.

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    PAGE​_Integrated​_Planning​_and​_SD​_SynthesisReport.pdf (3 MB)
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  • 2015 UNDP-GEF Annual Performance Report

    This eighth annual performance report of the UNDP Global Environmental Finance (UNDP-GEF) Unit has three primary goals:

    This eighth annual performance report of the UNDP Global Environmental Finance (UNDP-GEF) Unit has three primary goals: one, to provide a snapshot of progress made toward multiple development and environment benefits by projects in each region in 2015 – see Demonstrating Impact; two, to highlight progress made in addressing women, work and the environment – see Gender in Action; and three, to demonstrate the services UNDP provides to the vertical funds that it is accredited to, in particular the Global Environment Facility family of funds – see UNDP-GEF Unit. In addition, development and environment benefits that have been realized through projects and that can be reasonably aggregated at the regional and/or global levels are presented in a series of infographics.  This report demonstrates how investments in the environment in 141 countries are already delivering development benefits. 

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    2015 Annual Performance Report of UNDP​-Supported GEF​-Financed Projects​_DigitalFile.pdf (6 MB)
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  • State of Sustainability Initiatives Review: Standards and the Blue Economy

    The SSI Review: Standards and the Blue Economy takes a deep dive into the market and performance trends of the 9 most pr

    The SSI Review: Standards and the Blue Economy takes a deep dive into the market and performance trends of the 9 most prevalent seafood certification schemes operating in the wild catch and aquaculture sectors. The Review provides a reference point for buyers, producers, policy makers and consumers in deciding how best to apply voluntary standards in their own decision-making processes.

    ssi​-blue​-economy​-2016.pdf (20 MB)
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  • Grid Emission Factors in Cambodia (2010-2012)

    The IGES Capacity Building for the JCM, in cooperation with the National Council for Sustainable Development, decided to

    The IGES Capacity Building for the JCM, in cooperation with the National Council for Sustainable Development, decided to formulate emission factors of electricity systems for baseline in CDM projects as well as support data for the identification of reference scenario in the JCM projects for electricity systems in Cambodia, and to this end the IGES Capacity Building for the JCM held expert consultation meetings with electricity relevant authorities and companies in Cambodia. This report presents a summary of the results of the above activities.

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    GEF​-Cambodia​_2010​-2012.pdf (491 KB)
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  • Cambodia Climate Change Action Plan for Environment Sectors 2016 – 2018

    Cambodia Climate Change Action Plan for Environment Sectors 2016 – 2018

    Cambodia Climate Change Action Plan for Environment Sectors 2016 – 2018

    climate change action plan for moe 2016​-2018​-en​-final​-new.pdf (2 MB)
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  • Greater Mekong Subregion Urban Development Strategic Framework 2015–2022

    This ADB report features Greater Mekong Subregion (GMS) Urban Development Strategic Framework, 2015–2022. It sets

    This ADB report features Greater Mekong Subregion (GMS) Urban Development Strategic Framework, 2015–2022. It sets out a broad framework to encourage and facilitate a coordinated approach to the development of urban areas throughout the GMS. The framework includes three pillars: (i) planning and development of key urban areas, (ii) planning and development of border areas, and (iii) capacity development in urban planning and management. Underlying these are four crosscutting themes—green development and climate change resilience, disaster risk management, inclusive development, and competitiveness. The GMS Urban Development Strategic Framework also provides the context for ongoing and planned projects in the six GMS member countries.

    gms​-urbandev​-framework​-2015​-2022.pdf (4 MB)
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  • Economic Valuation Of Wastewater: The Cost Of Action And The Cost Of No Action

    This book presents the results of an analytical study on the economic valuation for wastewater, comparing the costof no

    This book presents the results of an analytical study on the economic valuation for wastewater, comparing the costof no action versus the cost of effective wastewater management.

    ​-Economic​_Valuation​_of​_Wastewater​_​_The​_Cost​_of​_Action​_and​_the​_Cost​_of​_No​_Action​-2015Wastewater​_Evaluation​_Report​_Mail.pdf.pdf (8 MB)
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  • Final Report of Estimating Industrial Pollution using IPPS in Lao PDR

    During 2013 and 2014, CEP supported Lao PDR’s Ministry of Natural Resources and Environment’s Pollution Cont

    During 2013 and 2014, CEP supported Lao PDR’s Ministry of Natural Resources and Environment’s Pollution Control Department to apply the the Industrial Pollution Projection System (IPPS), a model that estimates pollution intensities for different industries and can be applied to large geographic areas at relatively low effort and expense. IPPS was used to estimate pollution intensities for different industries in all 17 provinces and the results are helping the Government to identify the industries and locations to focus pollution control efforts on. Training and awareness raising events were held and a summary report was produced. The results are also being used as a key input into the development of a Pollution Control Strategy for the country, which is also being supported by CEP.

    Estimating Industrial Pollution in Lao PDR​_1.PDF (3 MB)
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  • Building Natural Capital: How REDD+ Can Support A Green Economy

    REDD+ is the approach adopted by the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) to reduce greenhouse

    REDD+ is the approach adopted by the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) to reduce greenhouse gas emissions from forests. REDD+ stands for reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation in developing countries, plus conservation, sustainable management of forests and enhancement of forest carbon stocks (UNFCCC, 2010). If systematically pursued, REDD+ would bring new momentum and new funding to the task of preserving the world’s forests. REDD+ is already delivering important outcomes as it brings further world attention to the conservation of tropical forests, monitoring the state of forests, and the contributions of people living in and around forests.

    building​_natural​_capital​_full​_report​_english.pdf (18 MB)
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  • GMS Atlas of the Environment - 2nd Edition

    Prepared for the 20th Anniversary of the GMS, this second edition of the Atlas offers a unique overview of the exquisite

    Prepared for the 20th Anniversary of the GMS, this second edition of the Atlas offers a unique overview of the exquisite beauty and diversity of the subregion’s natural environment. It also highlights the tremendous progress made by the GMS countries, as well as the need to address the increasing risks that they face. 


    Access the Atlas here.

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