Economy

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Exports of primary commodities

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Foreign Direct Investment

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Foreign Direct Investment, inward

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Gross domestic product (current prices)

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Gross domestic product per capita (current prices)

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Imports of primary commodities

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Industry, value added (% of GDP)

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Merchandise trade balance

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Services exports

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Services imports

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Services trade balance

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Share of primary commodities in total exports

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Share of primary commodities in total imports

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Total merchandise exports

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Total merchandise imports

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Environment Projects in GMS Landscapes

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GMS Rice Production

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GMS Sea Ports

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GMS Special Economic Zones (CEZ)

  • December 01, 2017
    World Resources Institute

    Roots of Prosperity: The Economics and Finance of Restoring Land

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    This report provides a comprehensive analysis of the benefits and costs of restoring forests and landscapes in countries around the world, demonstrating how smart policies and innovative financing can help governments meet their restoration targets. The authors find that finance, both public and private, for restoration is inadequate for seven reasons, and offers solutions to these financial barriers.

    The publication also outlines the main steps involved in carrying out economic analyses, bringing to light the full value of ecosystem services and social benefits as well as the costs of degradation. These insights can help governments to develop policy instruments and financing mechanisms that promote restoration on the ground. They can also help stakeholders incorporate environmental and social benefits into financing decisions.

    roots​-of​-prosperity.pdf (3 MB)
  • November 01, 2017
    WB

    State and Trends of Carbon Pricing 2017

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  • September 01, 2017
    ADB

    Trade Facilitation and Better Connectivity for an Inclusive Asia and Pacific

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    This publication investigates the evolution of trade costs, and reviews the state of play of trade facilitation and paperless trade in Asia and the Pacific.

    Trade facilitation increases trade flows, lowers trade cost, and ultimately contributes to sustainable and inclusive growth. This publication, jointly prepared by the Asian Development Bank and the United Nations Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific, reviews the state of play of trade facilitation and paperless trade in Asia and the Pacific. It investigates the evolution of trade costs in the region, examines trade facilitation and paperless trade implementation, and highlights the key initiatives and efforts in Central Asia, the Greater Mekong Subregion, South Asia, and the Pacific. It includes impact assessments of trade facilitation implementation and corridor performance on reducing trade costs and increasing trade.

    Click here for more detial.

    trade​-facilitation​-connectivity.pdf (4 MB)
  • September 01, 2017
    Frankfurt School-UNEP Collaborating Centre

    Climate Metrics for Debt and Equity Portfolios: A Framework for Analysis

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    The Paris Agreement requires significantly increased efforts to reduce emissions in the short term and net zero emissions by the second half of the century. To meet the investment needs in green technologies and other emission reduction measures, both public and private financing is required at scale and needs to be applied in a mutually enhancing way. The transformation will include alternative sources of financing since long-term loans becomes scare after the financial crisis.  For the success of the transformation, it is therefore important that investments are compatible with long-term climate protection scenarios.

    The report contributes by providing a conceptual framework of mapping climate metrics. The conceptual framework includes an inventory of existing metrics and classifies them according to two dimensions. As such, it helps to detect what kind of additional climate metrics are still required. Thus it is extending the notion about key design principles for climate metrics. In addition, the report contributes to that debate whether the influence of equity investors on ecological business strategy is bigger than the influence of debt investors as it develops a framework to reflect the consequences of the different positions. The report provides a numerical illustration of a number of the design characteristics that have been introduced and also includes a dynamic perspective in the light of the debate whether to account for debt and equity in a different way. The application of the framework to five hypothetical portfolios supports that equity and debt should not be treated fundamentally different.

    seimetrics201709finalreport.pdf (1 MB)
  • August 01, 2017
    ADB

    Catalyzing Green Finance: A Concept for Leveraging Blended Finance for Green Development

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    This publication describes an innovative financing solution for enhancing both financially bankable as well as environmentally sustainable infrastructure projects. A large financing need challenges climate-adjusted infrastructure in developing Asia, estimated at $26 trillion till 2030. This necessitates crowding-in private sources to meet financing, efficiency, and technology gaps. However, a lack of bankable projects is a major hurdle. This publication suggests one possible innovative financing approach. The Green Finance Catalyzing Facility (GFCF) proposes a blended finance framework for governments and development entities to better leverage development funds for risk mitigation, generate a pipeline of bankable green infrastructure projects, and directly catalyze private finance. The GFCF provides useful inputs for the current debate on mainstreaming green finance into country financial systems.

    Click here for more detial.

    catalyzing​-green​-finance.pdf (9 MB)
  • July 01, 2017
    UNEP

    Green Finance Progress Report 2017

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    The G20 Green Finance Synthesis Report adopted at the G20 Leaders Summit in Hangzhou in September 2016 set out seven options identified by the G20 Green Finance Study Group (GFSG) to accelerate the mobilization of green finance. This paper highlights some of the progress made against these seven options in G20 members and internationally since June 2016. Progress described is illustrative and non-exhaustive, drawing on voluntary contributions from GFSG members and a broader review of global trends. While not comprehensive, it provides a useful summary of many of the key developments and the overall progress made to mobilize private capital for green investment.

    Progress observed and reported in this paper indicates that momentum is growing in mainstreaming green finance into the architecture and practice of financial and capital markets. This momentum has directly resulted in an increased mobilization of green finance. UN Environment tracks a range of green finance measures including, for example, green financing mobilized, policies, regulations, standards, guidelines, principles and fiscal incentives. This report shows that more measures related to green finance have been introduced since June 2016 compared with any other one-year period since 2000.

    Green Finance Progress Report 2017.pdf (2 MB)
  • June 01, 2017
    IUCN

    Guidelines for tourism partnerships and concessions for protected areas: Generating sustainable revenues for conservation and development

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    Many Parties to the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) underutilise tourism as a means to contribute towards the financial sustainability of protected areas. The development of the present guidelines on tourism partnerships and concessions for protected areas is a response to this under-utilized potential and to recent decisions of the CBD on tourism.

    Click here for more detial.

    2017​-044.pdf (4 MB)
  • May 16, 2017
    EcoAgriculture Partners, IUCN

    Business for Sustainable Landscapes

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    This report draws widely from the diverse experience of landscape partnerships to analyze the challenges and opportunities for businesses and their partners, and lays out critical actions needed by businesses themselves, and by financial institutions, governments and landscape programs, to improve the effectiveness of landscape partnerships and replicate the approach in many more places.

    Business​-for​-Sustainable​-Landscapes​-An​-Action​-Agenda​-for​-Sustainable​-Development​-May​-2017.pdf (4 MB)
  • May 01, 2017
    ADB

    Banking on the Future of Asia and the Pacific: 50 Years of The Asian Development Bank

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    This book is a history of the Asian Development Bank (ADB), a multilateral development bank established 50 years ago to serve Asia and the Pacific.

    Focusing on the region’s economic development, the evolution of the international development agenda, and the story of ADB itself, Banking on the Future of Asia and the Pacific raises several key questions: What are the outstanding features of regional development to which ADB had to respond? How has the bank grown and evolved in changing circumstances? How did ADB’s successive leaders promote reforms while preserving continuity with the efforts of their predecessors? ADB has played an important role in the transformation of Asia and the Pacific over the past 50 years. As ADB continues to evolve and adapt to the region’s changing development landscape, the experiences highlighted in this book can provide valuable insight on how best to serve Asia and the Pacific in the future.

    50years​-adb.pdf (5 MB)
  • May 01, 2017
    ADB

    Financing Asian Irrigation: Choices Before Us

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    By 2050, agriculture will need to produce 100% more food in developing countries. Improved irrigation productivity and greater financial sustainability are critical.

    Water resources are becoming increasingly scarce in the Asia Pacific region. By 2050, agriculture will need to produce 100% more food in developing countries. Climate change and rapid population growth will place new pressures on already scarce water resources. Improved irrigation productivity—more crop per drop—and greater financial sustainability are critical. Estimates for the Asian region place a $12.31 billion annual investment required for irrigation between 2005 and 2013.

    This publication looks into how the Asia and Pacific region is addressing the need to sustainably fund large-scale, publicly owned and managed surface irrigation and drainage systems.

    financing​-asian​-immigration.pdf (2 MB)
  • May 01, 2017
    ADB

    Risk Financing for Rural Climate Resilience in the Greater Mekong Subregion

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    This report presents the findings of a climate risk financing study conducted by the GMS Core Environment Program in 28 rural communities in Cambodia, the Lao People’s Democratic Republic, and Viet Nam. It provides an overview of the frequency and severity of climate-related disasters for the communities, the impact of these on rural livelihoods, and how local people currently manage climate risks. The report also explores what climate risk financing strategies could be applied in such communities, including the potential costs and benefits.

    Click here for more detial.


    risk​-financing​-rural​-climate​-resilience​-gms.pdf (4 MB)
  • April 06, 2017
    Frankfurt School-UNEP Collaborating Centre

    Global Trends in Renewable Energy Investment 2017

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  • April 01, 2017
    ADB

    Asian Development Outlook (ADO) 2017: Transcending the Middle-Income Challenge

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    Developing Asia has continued to perform well, even as recovery in the major industrial economies remains weak. The region is forecast to expand by 5.7% in 2017 and 2018, nearly the 5.8% growth achieved in 2016.

    Decades of rapid growth transformed developing Asia from a low-income region to middle income. Sustaining growth to power the transition to high income will depend on much greater improvement in productivity. Innovation, human capital, and infrastructure are the three pillars of productivity growth. Supportive institutions and policies, underpinned by macroeconomic stability, can strengthen all three pillars. Asia’s dynamic track record suggests that attaining high income status, while challenging, is achievable.

    ado​-2017.pdf (7 MB)
  • April 01, 2017
    ADB

    Clean Energy Financing Partnership Facility: Annual Report 2016

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    ADB's Clean Energy Financing Partnership continues to provide critical financial support to clean energy projects with $2.1 billion in clean energy investments in 2016.

    The Clean Energy Financing Partnership Facility (CEFPF) was established by ADB in April 2007, to assist developing member countries improve energy security and transit to low-carbon use through cost-effective investments, particularly in technologies that result in greenhouse gas mitigation. CEFPF is composed of the Clean Energy Fund, the Asian Clean Energy Fund, the Carbon Capture and Storage Fund and the Canadian Climate Fund for the Private Sector in Asia. The Facility contributes to the energy sector in achieving the scaled up ADB’s annual target set in September 2015, ADB pledged to double its annual climate financing to $6 billion by 2020, with $4 billion for climate mitigation and $2 billion for climate adaptation. The energy sector is expected to contribute about $3 billion to climate mitigation.

    This annual report provides CEFPF's operational results and overall implementation progress from 1 January to 31 December 2016.

    cefpf​-annual​-report​-2016.pdf (3 MB)
  • March 01, 2017
    ADB

    Eradicating Poverty and Promoting Prosperity

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    In Asia and the Pacific extreme income poverty remains widespread. This analysis of trends and highlighted good practices provides useful input into regional and global dialogues.

    This report is produced under a renewed partnership between United Nations (ESCAP), ADB, and the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) to support national and regional efforts to implement the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development. It explores five megatrends that will determine whether everyone will be able to thrive and fulfill their expectations for a better life in the future: regional economic cooperation and integration; rural–urban transitions; demographic changes; ICT access and connectivity; and demand for natural resources.

    Click here for more detail.

    eradicating​-poverty​-asia​-pacific.pdf (4 MB)
  • March 01, 2017
    UNEP

    Resource Efficiency: Potential and Economic Implications

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    As our population continues to grow, so does the pressure on our finite and fragile resources. Yet that threat can be turned into an opportunity to deliver the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development. This report highlights the massive potential of using increased efficiency as a costeffective way to protect resources, tackle climate change and reduce our environmental footprint, while boosting economic growth, employment and development.

    resource​_efficiency​_report​_march​_2017​_web​_res.pdf (22 MB)
  • March 01, 2017
    Mekong Institute

    BASELINE SURVEY REPORT: Enhancing Competitiveness of Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises In The Southern Economic Corridor of ASEAN Mekong Sub-Region (AMS)

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    This is the baseline survey made for the project “Enhancing Competitiveness of Small and Medium- sized Enterprises (SMEs) in the Southern Economic Corridor (SEC) of ASEAN Mekong Sub region (AMS)” for the period 2016 – 2018. The Project is supported by the Government of Japan through Japan-ASEAN Integration Fund (JAIF) and covers a wide geographical area of 19 provinces in the SEC. With capacity development programs provided to local SMEs, CCIs, government officials and stakeholders, the project is about to (i) formulate SME clusters and integrate them into the regional value chains; (ii) to facilitate trade and investment promotions for the SME clusters though a number of trade and investment promotion events as well as SME database developments; and (iii) strengthen the business development services (BDS) providers to improve the coverage and quality of BDS services available to the target SME clusters.

    JAIF​-SEC​_Baseline​_Survey​_Report​_​-​_Final.pdf (2 MB)
  • March 01, 2017
    ADB

    Economics of Climate Change Mitigation in Central and West Asia

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    This report provides an assessment of the costs, benefits, and investment opportunities for GHG abatement in the energy and transport sectors of Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, and Uzbekistan.

    The ecological complexity of the Central and West Asian region gives way to diverse ecosystems with rich natural resources and hydrocarbon reserves; countries in this region are not only exposed to climate change risks, but there is growing recognition that their carbon-intensive economies necessitate reduction in greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in line with global efforts to mitigate climate change.

    The Economics of Climate Change in Central and West Asia, a regional technical assistance (TA) project of the Asian Development Bank (ADB) was designed to identify costs and opportunities in investments for low-carbon growth and climate resilience and low-carbon growth, under two components:

    • mitigation of climate change, which assessed the costs and benefits of GHG emission reduction measures and formulated low-carbon growth investment proposals for energy and transport in the most carbon-intensive countries in the region; and
    • adaptation to climate change, which assessed the costs and benefits of implementing adaptation measures to reduce the adverse effects of climate change on energy and water resources in the most vulnerable countries.
    economics​-climatechange​-cwa.pdf (2 MB)
  • January 19, 2017
    ASEAN

    Investing in ASEAN 2017

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    Since its formation, ASEAN has seen an underdeveloped region grow into one of the most dynamic drivers of today’s global economy. As it marks its fiftieth anniversary in 2017, the Association’s ten member countries are a significant focus of international investment as Southeast Asia’s success story continues, following the formation of the ASEAN Economic Community (AEC).

    Investing​-in​-ASEAN​-2017​-.pdf (5 MB)
  • December 15, 2016
    ADB

    Asian Economic Integration Report 2016

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    With the continued anemic global economic recovery, trade growth in Asia and the Pacific decelerated in 2015, falling further behind growth in gross domestic product.

    Click here for detial report.

    AsianEconomicIntegrationReport​-2016​-mainreport.pdf (4 MB) AsianEconomicIntegrationReport​-2016​-highlights.pdf (1 MB)
  • November 11, 2016
    WWF

    The Mekong River in the Economy Report

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    The Mekong River in the Economy report aims to reframe the debate around development and river resources management, guiding policy makers towards increased sustainability as well as continued growth.

    The two are not incompatible, but interdependent. The report lays out the benefits of integrating planning in a series of short narratives, highlighting the major risks and opportunities for different sectors within each Lower Mekong Basin country and illustrating how one actor’s development decisions are felt through the entire river system.

    WWF 2016​-Mekong River in the Economy.pdf (6 MB)
  • November 01, 2016
    Mekong Institute

    Study On Market & Value Chain Mapping in the Southern Economic Corridor and Southern Coastal Corridor of the Greater Mekong Subregion

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    Study of SME Cluster Value Chain of 19 Provinces along the SouthernEconomic Corridor and Southern Coastal Corridor of the Greater Mekong Subregion.

    Study​_on​_Market​_and​_Value​_Chain​_Mapping.pdf (11 MB)
  • November 01, 2016
    German Development Institute (DIE)

    Green Finance: Actors, challenges and policy recommendations

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    Green finance represents a positive shift in the global economy’s transition to sustainability through the financing of public and private green investments and public policies that support green initiatives. Two main tasks of green finance are to internalise environmental externalities and to reduce risk perceptions in order to encourage investments that provide environmental benefits.

    The major actors driving the development of green finance include banks, institutional investors and international financial institutions as well as central banks and financial regulators. Some of these actors implement policy and regulatory measures for different asset classes to support the greening of the financial system, such as priority-lending requirements, below-market-rate finance via interest-rate subsidies or preferential central bank refinancing opportunities. Although estimations of the actual financing needs for green investments vary significantly between different sources, public budgets will fall far short of the required funding. For this reason, a large amount of private capital is needed.

    However, mobilising capital for green investments has been limited due to several microeconomic challenges such as problems in internalising environmental externalities, information asymmetry, inadequate analytical capacity and lack of clarity in the definition of “green”. There are maturity mismatches between long-term green investments and the relatively short-term time horizons of savers and – even more important – investors. In addition, financial and environmental policy approaches have often not been coordinated. Moreover, many governments do not clearly signal how and to what extent they promote the green transition.

    In order to increase the flow of private capital for green investment, the following measures are crucial. First, it is necessary to design an enabling environment facilitating green finance, including the business climate, rule of law and investment regime. Second, the definition of green finance needs to be more transparent. Third, standards and rules for disclosure would promote developing green finance assets. For all asset classes – bank credits, bonds and secured assets – voluntary principles and guidelines for green finance need to be implemented and monitored. Fourth, because voluntary guidelines may not be sufficient, they need to be complemented by financial and regulatory incentives. Fifth, financial and environmental policies as well as regulatory policies should be better coordinated, as has happened in China.

    DIE​_Green Finance​_Actors, Challenges, Policy Recommendations.pdf (1 MB)
  • October 01, 2016
    ADB

    ADB - Disaster Risk in Asia and the Pacific: Assessment, Management and Finance

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    This report summarizes the proceedings of 3 events: the ADB-OECD Forum on Disaster Risk Financing, and the Global Seminar on Disaster Risk Financing in September 2015, and the Asian Forum of Insurance Regulators Roundtable in April 2016.

    Click here for detial report.

     

    Source: ADB

    disaster​-risk​-asia​-and​-pacific.pdf (1 MB)
  • August 02, 2016
    Asian Development Bank

    Video: New Road in Lao PDR Changes Everything

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    The Lao People’s Democratic Republic has built a new road with help from ADB linking the tourist town of Luangprabang with the country’s border with Thailand. Finished in 2014, the 367-km road provides access to goods, services and jobs and new businesses are flourishing along its length.

    Watch the video.

  • August 02, 2016
    Asian Development Bank

    Greater Mekong Subregion Statistics on Growth, Infrastructure and Trade (Second Edition)

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    The document builds on the first edition, with improved quantity and quality of data. The booklet begins with highlights—a snapshot of the subregion’s performance from 1992 to 2014—growth in output and merchandise trade, developments in information and communication technology, and trends in subregional integration. The five chapters feature macroeconomic data; connectivity indicators in transport, global shipping, and information and communication technology; indicators for transport, trade structure in merchandise and services; and indicators in logistics performance, doing business, competitiveness, trade costs, and trade facilitation.

    ADB 2016 ​-GMS​-Statistics​-2nd​-ed.pdf (867 KB)
  • July 15, 2016
    Asian Development Bank

    ADB - Natural Capital and the Rule of Law: Proceedings of the ADB Second Asian Judges Symposium on Environment 2013

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    This publication captures the proceedings of the Second Asian Judges Symposium: "Natural Capital and the Rule of Law" held 3–5 December 2013 in Manila, the Philippines.

     

    natural​-capital​-and​-rule​-law.pdf (2 MB)
  • June 15, 2016
    UNDP

    Integrated Planning and Sustainable Development: Challenges and Opportunities

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    This Synthesis Report and the eight country studies on which it draws, have been prepared through the Partnership for Action on Green Economy (PAGE), with funds from the European Commission. The report illustrates the many different sustainable development pathways that countries are pursuing in line with national priorities and contexts. Its country-based evidence and non-prescriptive findings for policymakers and practitioners highlight the need for integrated and coherent development policies, while illustrating a range of inclusive green economy solutions. As such, this report represents an important addition to the global community’s demand-driven resources for advancing the 2030 Agenda.

    Click here for more detail.

    PAGE​_Integrated​_Planning​_and​_SD​_SynthesisReport.pdf (3 MB)
  • June 01, 2016
    UNEP, Global Infrastructure Basel (GIB)

    Sustainable Infrastructure and Finance

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    Infrastructure is often referred to as the backbone of the global economy and plays a fundamental role in societies by enhancing the quality of life and increasing productivity. In addition to its effects on society and the economy, infrastructure can have significant impacts on the environment, depending on the choice of infrastructure.

    Approximately 75% of the infrastructure that will be in place in 2050 does not exist today. Getting such a scale of infrastructure development right will be critical to whether or not the world locks into a high- or low-carbon growth path. Therefore, if the world wants to meet the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), adequate infrastructure development is part of the answer.

    To foster the development of sustainable and resilient infrastructure, a clear standard to help integrating sustainability and resilience criteria in infrastructure projects is crucial. Such a standard for sustainable and resilient infrastructure projects would lead to benefits for both projects developers and financiers, and help address the current infrastructure investment barriers.

    Sustainable​_Infrastructure​_and​_Finance.pdf (665 KB)
  • May 18, 2016
    WWF

    Natural Connections - How Natural Capital Supports Myanmars People and Economy

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    The assessment presented in this report shows where and how Myanmar’s natural capital contributes to clean and reliable drinking water sources, reduced risks from floods inland and storms along the coasts, and to maintaining the functioning of reservoirs and dams by preventing erosion. 

    natural​_connections​_natural capital Myanmar.pdf (7 MB)
  • May 01, 2016
    IISD

    State of Sustainability Initiatives Review: Standards and the Blue Economy

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    The SSI Review: Standards and the Blue Economy takes a deep dive into the market and performance trends of the 9 most prevalent seafood certification schemes operating in the wild catch and aquaculture sectors. The Review provides a reference point for buyers, producers, policy makers and consumers in deciding how best to apply voluntary standards in their own decision-making processes.

    ssi​-blue​-economy​-2016.pdf (20 MB)
  • May 01, 2016
    UNEP

    Green Finance and Developing Countries: Needs, Concerns and Innovations

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    Green finance is a strategy for financial sector and broader sustainable development that is relevant around the world. But the context differs considerably for different countries. Developing countries, notably those with underdeveloped financial systems, face particular challenges in financing national development priorities.

    Broadly, concern and action to align financing to sustainable development is concentrated in three areas:

    • Preventing the financing of illicit practices or profiting from weak enforcement.
    • Unlocking opportunities for green investment.
    • Exploring solutions to dilemmas and trade-offs.

    The paper reports out on the build out of developing country work following the global report, "The Financial System We Need“ launched at the IMF Annual Meetings in Lima in October 2015. In particular, the paper sets out some of the needs and concerns particular to developing countries, as well as innovations that have emerged to address some of these specific aspects. The paper highlights the importance developing country actors place on embedding green into a broader sustainable finance lens, the significance of international developments in greening the financial system given their dependence on foreign direct investment, and the evidence of and potential for leapfrogging in aligning their financial systems to sustainable development, for example through the deployment of fintech.

    Green​_Finance​_for​_Developing​_Countries​-1.pdf (2 MB)
  • January 12, 2016
    Asian Development Bank

    Southeast Asia and the Economics of Global Climate Stabilization

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    This ADB study focuses on five countries of Southeast Asia that collectively account for 90% of regional GHG emissions inrecent years—Indonesia, Malaysia, the Philippines, Thailand, and Viet Nam. It applies two global dynamiceconomy–energy–environment models under an array of scenarios that reflect potential regimes forregulating global GHG emissions through 2050. The modeling identifies the potential economic costs of climate inaction for the region, how the countries can most e'ciently achieve GHG emission mitigation, and the consequences of mitigation, both in terms of benefits and costs. Drawing on the modeling results, the study analyzes climate-related policies and identifies how further action can be taken to ensure low-carbon growth.

    ADB​-SEA Economics Global Climate Stabilization.pdf (7 MB)
  • December 01, 2015
    RECOFTC

    Improving incomes of local people through the sustainable harvesting of timber

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    This comprehensive report is a review of the ‘Strengthening Sustainable Forest Management and Bioenergy Markets to Promote Environmental Sustainability and to Reduce Greenhouse Gas Emissions in Cambodia’ (SFM) project, summarizing the technical reports prepared by the individuals and organizations involved. The Community-Based Production Forestry (CBPF) Keo Seima project was conducted over several years and made possible by the invaluable contributions of many individuals of various organizations. Funding was provided by different sources interested in seeing through the success of the project.

    Improving incomes of local people through the sustainable harvesting of timberDec2015.pdf (1 MB)
  • December 01, 2015
    ADB

    Asian Economic Integration Report 2015: How Can Special Economic Zones Catalyze Economic Development?

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    Economic zones have played a key role in economic development in many Asian economies and can be catalysts for economic development, provided the right business environment and policies are put in place.

    In Asia, special economic zones (SEZs) can facilitate trade, investment, and policy reform at a time the region is experiencing a slowdown in trade and economic growth.

    Click here for more detail.

    asian​-economic​-integration​-report​-2015.pdf (6 MB)
  • November 18, 2015
    Oxfam

    Working Paper on Economic, Environmental and Social Impacts of Hydropower Development Lower Mekong Basin

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    This working paper is a revised, condensed version of the report ‘Planning Approaches for Water Resources Development in the Lower Mekong Basin’ by Portland State University, Oregon and Mae Fah Luang University, Chiang Rai (Robert Costanza et al. 2011).

    Working Paper on Economic, Environmental and Social Impacts of Hydropower Development Lower Mekong Basin.pdf (855 KB)
  • November 11, 2015
    GMS Core Environment Program

    Investing in Natural Capital for a Sustainable Future in the Greater Mekong Subregion

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    This report aims to demonstrate the compelling need to increase investments in natural capital in the Greater Mekong Subregion (GMS) and identifies actions now being taken regionally and nationally to manage natural capital. It also proposes a guiding framework for promoting investments and actions by GMS countries to secure natural capital and thus ensure sustainable and inclusive growth in the subregion.

    Investing in Natural Capital Report.pdf (3 MB)
  • September 16, 2015
    Asian Development Bank

    Regional Investment Framework Implementation Plan - First Progress Report

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    This ADB report provides the status of the overall Regional Investment Framework Implementation Plan as of 30 June 2015, for all sectors, both investment and technical assistance projects.The Greater Mekong Subregion Regional Investment Framework Implementation Plan, 2014-2018 (RIF-IP) identifies a pipeline of 93 high priority investment and technical assistance projects from among the more than 200 projects included in the Greater Mekong Subregion Regional Investment Framework, 2013-2022 (RIF).

    RIF​-ip​-progress​-report.pdf (2 MB)
  • September 14, 2015
    Asian Development Bank

    Economic Analysis of Climate-Proofing Investment Projects

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    This ADB report describes the conduct of the cost-benefit analysis of climate proofing investment projects. An important message is that the presence of uncertainty about climate change does not invalidate the conduct of the economic analysis of investment projects, nor does it require a new type of economic analysis. However, the presence of uncertainty does require a different type of decision-making process in which technical and economic expertise combine to present decision makers with the best possible information on the economic efficiency of alternative designs of investment projects.

    economic​-analysis​-climate​-proofing​-projects.pdf (3 MB)
  • September 10, 2015
    ADB

    Greater Mekong Subregion Statistics On Growth, Connectivity and Sustainable Development (First Edition)

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    The booklet has five chapters. Chapter One presents the country progress in achieving the Millennium Development Goals. Chapter Two is a regional and country overview of data on production, trade in goods and services, and foreign direct investment. Chapters Three and Four compile indicators in logistics performance, doing business, competitiveness and trade facilitation. Lastly, Chapter Five provides indicators for connectivity, focusing on the transport and information and communications technology sectors.

    gms​-statistics​-1st​-ed.pdf (1 MB)
  • June 01, 2015
    United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP)

    Economic Valuation Of Wastewater: The Cost Of Action And The Cost Of No Action

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    This book presents the results of an analytical study on the economic valuation for wastewater, comparing the costof no action versus the cost of effective wastewater management.

    ​-Economic​_Valuation​_of​_Wastewater​_​_The​_Cost​_of​_Action​_and​_the​_Cost​_of​_No​_Action​-2015Wastewater​_Evaluation​_Report​_Mail.pdf.pdf (8 MB)
  • April 15, 2015
    GMS Core Environment Program

    Strategic Environmental Assessment in the Greater Mekong Subregion

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    This brief promotes the value of strategic environmental assessment (SEA) to assist GMS decision makers to more effectively balance economic, social, and environmental considerations early in development planning processes. It draws on lessons from the GMS Core Environment Program’s (CEP) experience applying SEA for energy, land use, and subregional strategic planning processes.

    SEA in the GMS.pdf (1 MB)
  • March 01, 2015
    Grantham Research Institute on Climate Change and the Environment, GGGI

    Looking for Green Jobs: The impact of green growth on employment

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    There are many claims and counter-claims about whether green growth creates or destroys jobs. But fully assessing the consequences of environmental policies for employment presents a considerable challenge, and at present it is not possible for policy-makers to assess conflicting claims about the quality and quantity of green jobs that have already been created, or may be created in the future. One approach would be to focus on changes in employment in industries that provide environmental goods and services. Another would be to count the jobs created when firms adopt technologies with less environmental impact and switch to less polluting inputs, regardless of their primary outputs. Both approaches can be helpful for assessing the direct impact on jobs and the scale of structural change required by the transition to green growth. But green policies also affect labour markets indirectly through supply chains and through changes in overall demand. The destruction of ‘brown jobs’ in polluting industries should also be taken into account. The consequences of green policies for labour markets working through macroeconomic channels – such as changes in labour productivity and the costs of employment – are often overlooked. This policy brief argues for a greater focus on these indirect channels, taking into account a country’s particular economic structure and labour market institutions. This is particularly important for comprehensively analysing the impact of green policies in developing countries.

    Looking​_for​_green​_jobs​_the​_impact​_of​_green​_growth​_on​_employment​_GGGI​_Grantham​_Research​_Institute​_on​_Climate​_Change​_on​_the​_Environment​_0.pdf (422 KB)
  • November 11, 2014
    OECD

    Towards Green Growth in Southeast Asia

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    Southeast Asia’s booming economy offers tremendous growth potential, but also large and interlinked economic, social and environmental challenges. The region’s current growth model is based in large part on natural resource exploitation, exacerbating these challenges. This report provides evidence that, with the right policies and institutions, Southeast Asia can pursue green growth and thus sustain the natural capital and environmental services, including a stable climate, on which prosperity depends.

    Carried out in consultation with officials and researchers from across the region, Towards Green Growth in Southeast Asia provides a framework for regional leaders to design their own solutions to move their countries towards green growth. While recognising the pressures that Southeast Asian economies face to increase growth, fight poverty and enhance well-being, the report acknowledges the links between all these dimensions and underscores the window of opportunity that the region has now to sustain its wealth of natural resources, lock-in resource-efficient and resilient infrastructure, attract investment, and create employment in the increasingly dynamic and competitive sectors of green technology and renewable energy.

    Some key policy recommendations are that these challenges can be met by scaling up existing attempts to strengthen governance and reform countries’ economic structure; mainstreaming green growth into national development plans and government processes; accounting for the essential ecosystem services provided by natural capital, ending open-access natural resource exploitation; and guiding the sustainable growth of cities to ensure well-being and prosperity.

    Click here for more detial.

    Towards Green Growth In Southeast Asia.pdf (2 MB)
  • April 25, 2014
    SANDEE

    Policy Brief: Operationalizing Environmental Economic National Accounts

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    This brief draws on the findings and key discussions from the 'Workshop on Valuing and Accounting for the Environment in Asia,' which was held in Bangkok 8-10 October, 2013. The brief was compiled by the South Asian Network for Development and Environmental Economics (SANDEE). The Core Environment Program provided funding support for the workshop.

    Operationalizing Environmental .pdf (383 KB)
  • April 15, 2014
    Asian Development Bank

    Assessing Impact in the Greater Mekong Subregion: An Analysis of Regional Cooperation Projects

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    This ADB report provides a recent major initiative to assess the initial impact of ADB-supported projects under the Greater Mekong Subregion Program. As part of this exercise, a range of representative projects in the road transport, health, tourism, and energy sectors were selected for detailed analysis, and research institutes working with international consultants assessed their socioeconomic impact.

    ADB​-Assessing​-Impact​-GMS.pdf (2 MB)
  • January 24, 2014
    UNEP

    Building Natural Capital: How REDD+ Can Support A Green Economy

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    REDD+ is the approach adopted by the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) to reduce greenhouse gas emissions from forests. REDD+ stands for reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation in developing countries, plus conservation, sustainable management of forests and enhancement of forest carbon stocks (UNFCCC, 2010). If systematically pursued, REDD+ would bring new momentum and new funding to the task of preserving the world’s forests. REDD+ is already delivering important outcomes as it brings further world attention to the conservation of tropical forests, monitoring the state of forests, and the contributions of people living in and around forests.

    building​_natural​_capital​_full​_report​_english.pdf (18 MB)
  • December 01, 2013
    Friedrich Ebert Stiftung

    Green Growth Strategies in Asia: Drivers and Political Entry Points

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    Green Growth Strategies in Asia - Drivers and Political Entry Points:

    -Despite their relatively poor environmental performance in recent decades, manyAsian countries are beginning to develop green growth strategies.

    -These strategies utilize different entry points for promoting continued economicgrowth and employment generation, while improving living conditions and addressingthe imperatives of resource efficiency and environmental protection.

    The incentives and drivers vary across countries and depend on the respective developmentmodels, resource endowments, financial resources and technological capacities.

    -Success depends crucially on the development of a new, broader set of state capacities.These include not only capacities to develop and consistently enforce a robustset of environmental policies, but also to ensure their coherence with other policydomains, in particular innovation and industrial policies.

    -In order to scale-up these emerging initiatives into broader transition strategies,the development and further strengthening of corresponding political discoursesand societal coalitions is needed. Such strategies will have to consider the politicaleconomy of reforms, incorporate questions of social justice and address the interestsof key stakeholders.

    Green Growth Strategies in Asia.pdf (217 KB)
  • November 28, 2013
    GMS Core Environment Program

    Planning Sustainable Investments in the Greater Mekong Subregion

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    This CEP brief summarizes the methodology and lessons learned from a Spatial Multicriteria Assessment (SMCA) recently applied to the GMS Regional Investment Framework. It concludes that SMCA is a valuable tool to help decision makers understand and respond to the economic, environmental, and social risks of investments.  For example, SMCA can assist decision-makers to prioritize investments, determine appropriate land allocation, and plan mitigation measures.

    Planning Sustainable Investments in the GMS​_web.pdf (1 MB)
  • November 20, 2013
    WWF

    Heart of Borneo: Investing in Nature for a Green Economy

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    Until now we have put almost no effort in calculating the value of the Borneo forests. It takes the first steps towards quantifying the unseen value of nature in the Heart of Borneo and tells us that with concerted action, a green development pathway is indeed possible, with greater benefits for everybody, including indigenous communities and the poor. It presents a beacon of hope, with conservation, development and economic growth going hand in hand.  In order to implement its message, the real value of natural capital must be reflected in btoh fiscal planning and the prices of goods and services. There must be financial incentives to stimulate the proper husbandry of natural resources, with realistic valuations given to the crucial issue of the growth of low-carbon markets and sustainable, pro-poor economies. Carbon finance through REDD+ can be a key mechanism to safeguard the forests and unlock their true value.  Governments must take the lead and work with civil society, indigenous groups and the private sector to make sustainable forest management financially worthwhile. The Heart of Borneo is an excellent place to begin. We urgently need a new path towards a sustainable future-one which places a true economic value on nature's gifts and the role they play in providing us with the necessities of life. 
     This report will help us to get closer to creating the green economies that will ensure food, water and energy security for all.

    heart​_of​_borneo​_green​_economy​_main​_report​_2012.pdf (15 MB)
  • July 17, 2013
    Center for International Forestry Research

    Payments for Forest Environmental Services in Viet Nam - From Policy to Practice

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    This CIFOR Occasional Paper assesses the government of Vietnam’s program of Payments for Forest Environmental Services (PFES), with the aim of providing policy makers with practical policy recommendations for achieving effective, efficient and equitable outcomes. 

    Payments for Forest Environmental Services in Vietnam ​- From Policy to Practice.pdf (3 MB)
  • July 01, 2013
    AfDB, OECD, UN and WB

    A Toolkit of Policy Options to Support Inclusive Green Growth

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    The non-prescriptive Inclusive Green Growth Toolkit developed by four International Organizations (IOs) - AfDB, OECD, UN, and WB - at the request of the G20 Development Working Group under the Mexican G20 Presidency in June 2012 and updated in July 2013 aims at providing policy-makers with:

    · A framework to help develop inclusive green growth strategies

    · An overview of some of the key tools that specifically address the challenges raised by making growth green and inclusive.

    · A brief discussion of knowledge sharing and capacity building challenges and solutions.

    The tools described in the toolkit are mostly classic, fairly well-known tools such as environmental fiscal reform and social protection instruments. What is new is that they are brought together and that they are all being assessed according to their economic, social, and environmental implications.

    IGG​-ToolkitAfDB​-OECD​-UN​-WB​-revised​_July​_2013.pdf (2 MB)