Library

  • December 01, 2017
    Frankfurt School-UNEP Collaborating Centre

    Climate Metrics for Debt and Equity Portfolios: A Framework for Analysis

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    The Paris Agreement requires significantly increased efforts to reduce emissions in the short term and net zero emissions by the second half of the century. To meet the investment needs in green technologies and other emission reduction measures, both public and private financing is required at scale and needs to be applied in a mutually enhancing way. The transformation will include alternative sources of financing since long-term loans becomes scare after the financial crisis.  For the success of the transformation, it is therefore important that investments are compatible with long-term climate protection scenarios.

    The report contributes by providing a conceptual framework of mapping climate metrics. The conceptual framework includes an inventory of existing metrics and classifies them according to two dimensions. As such, it helps to detect what kind of additional climate metrics are still required. Thus it is extending the notion about key design principles for climate metrics. In addition, the report contributes to that debate whether the influence of equity investors on ecological business strategy is bigger than the influence of debt investors as it develops a framework to reflect the consequences of the different positions. The report provides a numerical illustration of a number of the design characteristics that have been introduced and also includes a dynamic perspective in the light of the debate whether to account for debt and equity in a different way. The application of the framework to five hypothetical portfolios supports that equity and debt should not be treated fundamentally different.

    seimetrics201709finalreport.pdf (1 MB)
  • December 01, 2017
    GGGI

    Green Energy Development Technical Guidelines 4th

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    GGGI’s Technical Guidelines on Green Energy Development, the 4th in the series of GGGI Technical Guidelines, published by the Global Green Growth Institute (GGGI). GGGI developed this Green Energy Development Guidelines based on its experience in providing green growth and energy support to member countries.

    The Guidelines are developed to assist member countries in developing strategic green energy development plans and implementation road maps at every stage of the GGGI value chain. They serve as reference for government officials of GGGI member countries, GGGI staffs and consultants, development partners, and relevant stakeholders who are working on areas related to or looking to develop a project on green energy.

    GGGI’s​-Technical​-Guidelines​-on​-Green​-Energy​-Development​_dereje​-senshaw2017.pdf (2 MB)
  • December 01, 2017
    World Resources Institute

    Roots of Prosperity: The Economics and Finance of Restoring Land

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    This report provides a comprehensive analysis of the benefits and costs of restoring forests and landscapes in countries around the world, demonstrating how smart policies and innovative financing can help governments meet their restoration targets. The authors find that finance, both public and private, for restoration is inadequate for seven reasons, and offers solutions to these financial barriers.

    The publication also outlines the main steps involved in carrying out economic analyses, bringing to light the full value of ecosystem services and social benefits as well as the costs of degradation. These insights can help governments to develop policy instruments and financing mechanisms that promote restoration on the ground. They can also help stakeholders incorporate environmental and social benefits into financing decisions.

    roots​-of​-prosperity.pdf (3 MB)
  • November 01, 2017
    WB

    State and Trends of Carbon Pricing 2017

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  • November 01, 2017
    International Energy Agency

    Technology Roadmap: Delivering Sustainable Bioenergy

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    Bioenergy is the main source of renewable energy today. IEA modelling also indicates that modern bioenergy is an essential component of the future low carbon global energy system if global climate change commitments are to be met, playing a particularly important role in helping to decarbonise sectors such as aviation, shipping and long haul road transport. However, the current rate of bioenergy deployment is well below the levels required in low carbon scenarios. Accelerated deployment is urgently needed to ramp up the contribution of sustainable bioenergy across all sectors, notably in the transport sector where consumption is required to triple by 2030.  But bioenergy is a complex and sometimes controversial topic. There is an increasing understanding that only bioenergy that is supplied and used in a sustainable manner has a place in a low carbon energy future.  This Technology Roadmap re-examines the role of bioenergy in light of changes to the energy landscape over the past five years as well as recent experience in bioenergy policy, market development and regulation. It identifies the technical, policy and financial barriers to deployment, and suggests a range of solutions to overcome them.

    Technology​_Roadmap​_Delivering​_Sustainable​_Bioenergy.pdf (2 MB)
  • November 01, 2017
    UNEP

    The Emissions Gap Report 2017: A UNEP synthesis report

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    The goal of the Paris Agreement on climate change, as agreed at the Conference of the Parties in 2015, is to keep global temperature rise this century to well below 2 degrees Celsius above pre-industrial levels. It also calls for efforts to limit the temperature increase even further to 1.5 degrees Celsius.

    The UN Environment Emissions Gap Report 2017 presents an assessment of current national mitigation efforts and the ambitions countries have presented in their Nationally Determined Contributions, which form the foundation of the Paris Agreement.

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    EGR​_2017.pdf (3 MB)
  • October 18, 2017
    China National Renewable Energy Centre

    China Renewable Energy Outlook 2017 - Executive Summary

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    China Renewable Energy Outlook 2017 (CREO 2017) is the second outlook in the “Boosting Renewable Energy in China” program within China National Renewable Energy Centre (CNREC). Against the backdrop of overarching Chinese development strategies and the international experiences from front-runner countries this year’s outlook focuses on China’s possibilities for low-carbon energy transition towards 2050, and the short-term actions needed to remove obstacles for RE development and quickly move in the right direction. The results of our research are presented in the outlook report, which will be published in November 2017. In this booklet, we present the main findings and key results to give the reader a quick overview. For the more detailed assumptions, analyses and results we strongly recommend reading the full report.

    CREO​_2017​-booklet​-EN​-20171222.pdf (2 MB)
  • October 10, 2017
    UNESCAP

    Asia-Pacific Disaster Report 2017

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    Asia and the Pacific is the region most affected by natural disasters which hit hardest at the poorest countries and communities. And on present trends, as more migrants crowd into slums and shanty towns in Asia-Pacific cities, whole communities are likely to see their homes and livelihoods shattered or washed away by the wilder forces of nature.

    This edition of the Asia-Pacific Disaster Report, looks at the extent and impact of natural disasters across the region and how these intersect with poverty, inequality and the effects of violent conflict. But it also shows how scientific and other advances have increased the potential for building disaster resilience and ensuring that even in the most extreme circumstances people can survive disaster impacts and rebuild their communities and livelihoods.

    Disaster resilience is a key element of the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development. The Sustainable Development Goals are based on the premise of reaching absolutely everyone. When the drought is assessed, when the flood warnings are broadcast, when the tsunami siren sounds, the aim is to ‘leave no one behind’. If governments are to fulfil this ambition, and protect their most vulnerable people, they will need to ground national development strategies firmly in disaster resilience.

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    Asia​-PacificDisasterReport2017Full.pdf (6 MB)
  • October 01, 2017
    FAO

    2017 Forest change in the Greater Mekong Subregion (GMS)

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    This report looks at both negative and positive drivers that affect forest change in the Greater Mekong Sub-region (GMS) in the last 25 years (1990-2015) in order to have a better understanding of their influence on forests in the region. It evaluates policies and measures in relation to drivers of forest change. Agricultural expansion, infrastructure development particularly hydropower dams and road construction, logging, mining operations and forest fires are the most dominant drivers of forest loss in GMS. At a positive note, almost all countries in the region have adopted policies that support SFM and balance the social, economic and environmental aspects of forestry. Furthermore, there seems to be a movement towards sustainable policies which influence the shift towards SFM, forest conservation and afforestation and reforestation. Although it seems the policies addressing the drivers of deforestation exist at local, national and international level, their effectiveness has been mixed. T his report presents forest changes in the Greater Mekong Subregion (GMS) over a period of 25 years between 1990 and 2015. It describes key drivers that have affected these changes. Some drivers influenced forests negatively in that they resulted in deforestation and forest degradation. On the other hand, positive drivers promoted sustainable forest management (SFM), afforestation and reforestation and forest conservation.

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    2017 FAO Forest Change in the GMS.pdf (4 MB)
  • October 01, 2017
    Climate Focus

    How Improved Land Use Can Contribute to the 1.5°C Goal of the Paris Agreement

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    Climate Focus’ How Land Use Can Contribute to the 1.5°C Goal of the Paris Agreement develops a roadmap of action for the land-use sector to meet its necessary contribution to the Paris Agreement.

    The analysis relies on a modelling of land-sector development trajectories optimizing least-cost pathways, a bottom-up assessment of mitigation potentials, and a correction of potentials for political feasibility. The Global Biosphere Management Integrated Assessment Model, a partial-equilibrium model developed by the International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis, formed the basis of our modelling. We determined the 40 countries with the highest technical mitigation potential and assessed the feasibility of mitigation action based on their political will and ability to realize this potential. Finally, we outlined 10 priority actions to reduce the land-use sector’s contribution to global warming. The actions range from avoided deforestation, restoration of forests, to diet shifts and reduced food waste.

    Click here for more detail.

    CIFF Report.pdf (6 MB)